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Enugu, Nigeria
Enugu State

Science Lab Technology Department




          The prevalence of Trichomonas  Vaginalis among adult in “Osumenyi” in Nnewi south local government Area of Anambra state was

arried out.  This was done using a stotal of one hundred adults from there different clinics viz ;- Health center, family planning and Antenatal Clinic in Osumenyi; in Nnewi South L.G.A of Anambra State.  the general prevalence was 37 (37%) positive cases out of the 100 samples used.  The highest number of positive cases were seen in Health centre Clinics, Osumenyi with (20%) positive cases, followed by family planning clinic, Osumenyi with (14%) positive cases and the least in Antenatal clinic in Osumenyi with (4% positive cases.  The parasitic organism was confirmed using wet mount preparation of urine and genital secretions.  The organism trichomonas  vaginalis was identified by its Jerky swaying  motion or jumpy movement.  It  was observed that the prevalence was highest in adults in the age range 31-45 years with 19 cases (19%) positive, followed by the age range 16-30 years with 10 cases (10%).  Next was in aga-range 46-60 years with 5 cases (5%) and least in age-range 61-75 years with 3 cases (3%)




Title page





Table of contents

List of tables



1.0     Introduction

1.1            Aim and objective

1.2            Hypothesis

1.3            Limitation/scope of the study

1.4            Limitation in the study

1.5            Statement of problem

1.6            Justification of the study



2.0            LITERATURE REVIEW



3.0            Materials and method

3.1     Materials

3.2            Method

3.2.1    Sterilization

3.2.2    Population sampled

3.2.3    Collection of samples

3.2.4    Laboratory examination



4.0            RESULTS



5.0            DISCUSSION



6.0     Conclusion and recommendations

6.1            Conclusion

6.2            Recommendations

















TABLE I: Colour Clarity and odour of urine sample collected from both sexes of adult………………………………………….

TABLE II: Colour and odour of  ggental secretion collected from both sexes of adult examine……………………………………..

TABLE III: Age distribution, numbering of possitive cases and negative cases of both sexes from health center, Osumenyi in Nnewi south L.G.A of Anambra State……………………………………………..

TABLE IV: Age distribution, number of positive and negative cases of both sexes from family planning clinic, Osumenyi in Nnewi south L.G.A of Anambra State……………………………………………

TABLE V: Age distribution, number of positive and negative cases of both sexes from Antenatal clinic, Osumenyi in Nnewi south of Anambra State.

TABLE VI : Age distribution of positive and negative case  and their percentages from all the three clinics……………….




Donne first discovered and named Trichomonas Virginalis in 1836.He found the  orgnaism in genital secretions 7 women and men, but it was initially regarded as non-pathogenic (Donne, 1936). Trichomonas vaginalis is a pear-shaped, flagellaatic, motile protogoa, with an undulating membrance.  It is about 10-20 Hm wide, and oxide. The organism is propelled by four anterior flagella with a  flagellium attached to an undulating membrance (Heine, 1993).  I. Vaginalis is a eukaryrote, anaeobic and does not  contain mitochoria in its cytop[lasm but instead contains specialized granules called hydrogenosomes throguh out the region of the cytoplasm with a slender posteriorly protruding regid rod called axostyle (Nester, est el, 2001 and Rultyle, 1983).  I. Vaginalis exist only as a trophozoile and do not take o a cyst from (Lossick, 1990).  Due to the organism’s unique energy metabolism,s the organism bears a strong resemblance to anaerobic bacteria (Petriu, 1998).  In wet mount preparation of vaginal secretions, the live organism can often be recognised by its unmistakably swaying motion (Nester et al, 2001).  I. Vaginalis grows best under anearobic conditions and at elevated PH levels.  Masimum growth and metabolic functions are greatest at PH of 6.0 (Spence, 1992) In accord with its anaerobic state, sthese interesting cytoplasmic double –bounded organelles (hydrogenosomes) remove the carboxyl group (CooH) from pyruvate and trasnfer electrons to hydrogen gas (Nester et al, 2001).  I. Vaginalis derives its glucose into oseccinate, acelate, malate, and hydrogen.  In addition it produces some carbondioxide but nost via the kreb cycle pathway (Dyall and Johnson, 2000).

          I. vaginalis causes sexually transmitted inecxtion (STI) called Trichomoniasis.  This infection is the most common nonviral sexually transmistted disease in the world.  Trichomoniasis, sometimes referred to as “Trich” is primarily an infection of the urogenital tract,. Which infects both men and women.  The urethra is the most common site for I. Vaginalis infection in men.  The organism can aslo be detected in the epididymis, semen and urine (Krieger, 1981). I. Vaginalis was first located in prostatie secretions from husbands of infected women (Drummond, 1936).  In women, vagina is the most, common site of the infection the organism may be isolated from the cervix, vagina, bartholins glands, bladder and occasionally.  The upper sreproductive / urinary tract (Reing, 1990).  Over 95% of infections have been isolated from vagina and only 5% from the urinaryu tract of adult women (Grys, 1964) the urethra and skene’s glands are infected in 90% of cases.  There have also been instances where organisms were isolated from bladder urine (Thoniason, 1989).  Infected men are usually asymsptomatic carriers of the organisms (Krieger, 1995)


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