EXTRACTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FATTY ACID FROM PALM OIL OBTAINED FROM UGWUAJI, ENUGU STATE, USING SOXHLET EXTRACTION
The extraction and proximate analysis of fatty acids was carried out in this study using soxhlet extractor. Palm oil is currently the largest edible oil in terms of global production and it is a largest single oil that is exported. It contain 50% saturated and 50% unsaturated fatty acids. The. Fatty acid that is present in palm oil can be extracted using soxhlet extractor. The solvent used here is hexane. Fatty acid other hand is a carboxylic acid with unbranched aliphatic tail. Fatty acid are either saturate. Fatty acids are produced by the hydrolysis of the ester linkages in a fat or oil. (both of which are triglycerides) with the removal of glycol. Fatty acids are of four types, unsaturated fatty acid, saturated during the characterization, the percentage yield was calculated to be 22.86% and also characteristic test was conducted to confirm the fatty acid, it tuned blue litmus paper red. Acid value also determine. And PH value was equally obtained to be 4.75.
Palm oil that has been staple in the human diet for more than 50 years, has been thrust into fore front because of its health related benefit. Palm oil is currently the second largest edible oil in term of global production. And largest single oil that is exported. (website).
Palm oil contain about 50% saturated and 80% unsaturated fatty acids. Some of the fatty acids may be attached to another molecules as in phospholipids which others may be seen as in free fatty acids ie they are not attached to other molecules or compounds (website).
This fatty acid present in palm oil can be extracted using soxhlet extractor. The solvent used here is hexane (Allen 1989).
This work is aimed at extracting the fatty acid present in palm oil. This is done with soxhlet extractor and Hexane are used as the solvent.
1.2 STATEMENTS OF PROBLEM
Palm oil contain fatty acid which are basis of interference in fats and hence constitute a problem which may result in rancidity of palm oil.
In this study, extraction of fatty acid is limited to saponifiable palm oil. Due to lack of standards, different or individual fatty acids are not identified. The soxhlet attraction. Method wastes a lot of time and energy. Though good quality of fatty acids are produced it cannot be applied in the industry.
Palm oil contains fatty acids which are either saturated or unsaturated. These fatty acids can also be exactracted from palm oil this basis of this study.