PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF PRIVATIZATION AND COMMERCIALIZATION OF GOVERNMENT PARASTATALS IN NIGERIA
This topic, problems and prospect of privatization and commercialization of government parastatals in Nigeria is the attempt to help the general public to know about the privatization commercialization of government parastatals in Nigerian. Moreover, to enable the public to contribute their own quota in the privatization issue and find out the problems and prospect associated with the porgammes. The chapter one deals with the introduction, the historical background of the programmes, and statement of problems objectives of study, significant of study, scope and limitation and lastly definition of terms. In this project writing the chapter’s one from chapter one to five which give the view of what privatization and commercialization of government parastatals are all about.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page i
Approval page ii
Table of contents vii
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of study 1
1.2 Statement of problem 17
1.3 Objectives of the stud 17
1.4 Statement of Hypotheses 18
1.5 Research questions 19
1.6 Significance of the study 19
1.7 Scope of the study 20
1.8 Limitation of the study 21
1.9 Definition of terms 22
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 The concept of privatization and
2.2 Reasons for privatization and commercialization 59
2.3 Types of privatization and commercialization65
2.4 Objectives of privatization and commercialization in Nigeria 67
2.5 Functions of Technical common on privatization and commercialization 69
2.6 Benefits of privatization and commercialization 72
2.7 Advantages of privatization and commercialization in Nigeria 76
2.8 Problems of privatization and commercialization 80
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design 86
3.2 Area of the study 86
3.3 Population of the study 87
3.4 Sampling method 88
3.5 Research instrumentation 89
3.6 Validity and reliability of measuring instrument 90
3.7 Source of data 91
3.8 Method of investigation 94
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Data presentation and analysis of results 96
4.2 Test of hypothesis 114
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Findings 116
5.2 Conclusions 120
5.3 Recommendation 122
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The key component of the federal Government Adjustment programme is the drive towards higher efficiency in the public sector. This necessitated the promulgation of privatization and commercialization Decree 25 in 1988 by the federal Government in which was reflected that government will divest it holdings in agricultural production, electrical appliances, hotels, foals and non strategic industries. Government will also reduce its holdings in banks insurance companies and other financial enterprises without losing control.
Privatization is thus, process of divesting government ownership control and management of enterprises and agencies to private individuals and or groups of individual or business firms that are seeking their profit. This is transfer of government owned industries or parastatals to the private sector.
Hemmings aptly, described privatization as a laudable policy to help moderate the quantity of securities available for dealing on the stock exchange the described further as the transfer of ownership and control of assets from the public to private sector.
Commercialization on the other hand means that the signaled enterprise will be excepted to generate enough revenue to cover their operation expenditure while government gives them capital grant to finance their capital intensive projects.
As a matter of feet, commercialization under the Decree 25 of 1988 on privatization and commercialization was defined as the re – organization of enterprises wholly or partly owned by the federal Military Government such that these enterprises shall operate as profit these making commercial ventures and without subvention from the federal Government.
The Government involving itself in business enterprises came as a result of predominance of state owned enterprises reflected a desire to control the economy after the colonial rule in the country.
The 1983 presidential commission on parastatals, examined the operating all the parastatals with a view to determine the basis for new funding scheme appropriate capital structure as well as incentive measured to enhance their productivity and general efficiency.
Following the commissioning, the year 1989 was earmarked was earmarked, the first year of implementation of the privatization and commercialization programme of the federal government of Nigeria.
It was firs announced in 1986 as part of the board efforts to reduce budgetary allocation to public sector efficiency and support the aim of fiscal balance. Divest holding will be taken care of to avoid it being contra-concentrated in the hand of few individuals.
In order to enable all interested citizen own shares in the private enterprises commercial banks were directed to grant credit facilities for the purchase of shares under the programme central bank of Nigeria programme 1989.
In the recent years, 2003 another step into privatization and commercialization has been taken by His excellency, Chief Olusegun Obasanjo, the president of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, as this has been a dream in the mind of Nigeria government for the post years, to invest profile an denounced political, social and economic development on a sustained basis. It is with this goals in minds, that it is realinging its policies and programmes to create the enabling environment for efficient government and put in place a viable private sectors. These public sectors include: NNPC, NITEL etc.
Consequently, there are reasons why government embarks on privatization and commercialization of parastatals such as: government desires to bring optimum efficiency into the industrial sector of the economy. This shows that government can work effectively achieve its social and development goals by reducing the widespread administration over commitment of the public sector and development relying on the managerial capacities of private individuals and firms which can respond to local needs, particularly in small scale industries.
Privatization is imperative for ramping over economy that has been characterized by typical problems of a state or country dominance over their economy which can be outlined as follows.
1. Decline in real gross Domestic product.
2. Deep seated corruption and political instability fueled by the concentration of wealth and power of the centre.
3. Unfair shift of resources from the massive public to the government causing widespread of poverty etc.
These problems which are connected in one – way or the other showed that a grant proportion of economic activity is controlled by inefficient government owned enterprises therefore accounting for the decline in GDP and slow rate of growth in the economy.
Government involvement in business enterprises in Nigeria and the predominance of state owned enterprises, reflected a desire to control the economy after wrestling political control from the colonialists enterprises and viable indigenous private sectors, the government had to move into the large empty spare left by society to take over the budding economy.
Government played a very important role in many areas of economic and industrial development. Moreover, provision of services is such areas of business like, insurance, petroleum manufacturing, shipping and banking where government acquired equity interests in twelve commercial and merchant banks. In all these, Nigeria had a rather bloated public sector with well over 1500 public enterprises at the federal and state levels enterprises at the federal and state levels with a regulated private enterprise. These enterprises accounted for between 30 – 40% of fixed capital investments as stated in the final report of the (TCPC) Technical committee on privatisation and commercialisation. As the chase may be wake of the economic recession which started in 1981 made it possible for attention to be focused on the activities of these parastatals.
The 1983 presidential commission on parastatals with a view to determining the basis for a new funding scheme, appropriate capital structure, as well as incentive measures to enhance their productivity and general efficiency. The report of the commission showed the following:
(1) MISUSE of monopoly power
(2) Defective capital structures, resulting in heavy dependence loan the treasury for funding
(3) Bureaucratic bottlenecks in their relation with supervising ministries.
(4) Mismanagement, corruption and nepotism
The federal Government could not fund the monumental wastes and inefficiencies of the enterprises with problems such as ill conscious investments, political interference in making decision etc.
The Federal Government Of Nigeria in the year 1985 for example, had invested a total sum of
N23 billion in the public sector. In addition to this, a total of N11.5 billion was recorded as subventions to various parastatals and companies.
The government revealed that the total dividends received from this investment, during the period of 1980 to October, 1985 was
N933.7 million, averaging approximately N155million per year.
The structural adjustment programme was first announced in 1986 as part of the bread efforts to reduce budgetary allocation to public sector efficiency and support the aim of fixed balance. Divested holding will be taken care of avoid it being concentrated in the hands of a few individual.
In order to enable all interested citizens own shares in the private enterprises, commercial banks were directed to grant credit facilities for the purchase of shares under the programme (CBN 1989) i.e the Central Bank of Nigeria Programme. Another programme was introduced and it was then, that bank was first privatised in Nigeria in 1992.
The federal government structural adjusted programme is the drive towards higher efficiency in the promulgation of the privatization and commercialization Decree No. 25 in 1988 by the Federal Government which reflected that government will divest its holdings in agricultural production. Electrical appliances and non- strategic industries and reduction of its holdings in banks, insurance companies and other financial enterprises without losing control.
The year 1989 was ear marked the first year of implementation of the privatization and commercialization programme of the Federal government.
Privatization as Ibie opined, it is a process by which the size of an inefficient and ineffective public sector is reduced by transferring some of its function to a relatively more efficient private sector. The introduction of privatization in Nigerian brought in the opinion of many intellectuals such as professor Adebayo who was of the opinion that, privatization and commercialization to succeed, there must be a resuffling in the economic policies. He said that it was only as a result of this, that public enterprise would be able to perform better.
Mallam sulleiman D. Umar was of the opinion that the issue of the absorptive of the capital markets could be solved by the following the procedure accepted during the indigeneization exercise of 1972. He observed that Nigerian capital market now has more experienced financial experts than before and that they could be put to work. He suggested that, for the policy to achieve orderly implementation, this process should be phased over a period of 2-3 years to enable a proper structuring of the company that were to be privatized first and the subsequent ones of follow:
Expression of fears were raised by individual and workers, in the sense that, it will bring unemployment as a result of massive retrenchment of workers in the public enterprises.
Chief of General Staff, Commander Ebitu Ukiwe gave a dismal picture of federal government investment in parastatals and companies as at october 31, 1995. Total dividends receipts by government amounted to
N93.7 million on investment of N11 billion i.e 1.39% returns. This reflected the more reason why the government felt the need to reduce the financial burden with the belief that the private sector would be able to record higher profits.
Given the inadequate accounting records of the parastatals, they may never qualify for quotation. This fear was allayed by the recommendation of the Second Tier Securities Market (SSM) with less stringent listing requirements as a starting point for such parastatals to quote their shares.
In the light of these issues raised as regards the privatization programme, the Federal Government of Nigeria, set up a technical committee on privatization and commercialization implement the porgramme. The technical committee (TCPC) was inaugurated on July 1988 and its secretariat in Ikoyi, Lagos.
Commercialization under the Decree No 25 of 1988 on privatization and commercialization was defined as. The re-organization of enterprises wholly or partly owned by the Federal Military Government such that these enterprises shall operate as profit-making commercial ventures and without subvention from Federal Military Government.
Privatization and commercialization of public sectors has been a dream in the mind of Nigerian Government in the past years. Now that its needs arise further growing economy of Nation Nigeria His excellency, Chief Olusegun Obasenjo the president of the Federal Republic of Nigeria has brought to focus in this recent year 2003 the programme again to privatize and commercialize public sectors to invest profile and enhance political, social and economic development on a sustained basis.
The parastatals to be private commercialize include: NNPC, NITEL, Nigeria Railway Corporation, NEPA to mention but few. It is with this goals in mind that, it is realigning its policies and programmes to create the enabling environment for efficient governance and put in place a viable private sectors.
In the above mentioned parastatals like Nigeria Airwaus is going to be privatize and commercialize because of its inefficiency caused by bureaucracy and political considerations. Passengers were not some of any flight Schedule as flights could be concelled any moment without prior information. In addition, there were few air routes because the Airways could not cope with demands of covering the whole country.
Federal government moving toward privatization of the oil sectors, has determined to shone up its 51 percent equity in each of the four refineries in the country while the balance will be retained with the NNPC. The realise its objective, the federal government has raised a four man presidential panel to oversee the sale of the refineries. The panel is headed by Dr. Edmund Olukoru with other five (5) members including Engr. Funso Kuplokun, Group Managing Director of NNPC and Dr. Julius Bala Director General of the Bureau for public enterprises (BPE).
The Government has dissolved the board of directors of the Port Harcourt and Kaduna refineries and management placed in the hands of stearing committee which would be in office until the plants are privatized. The four refineries have been slated for partial privatization in the second garters of this year 2004 and to ensure optimum production from the refineries.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The purpose of this study is to find out why government parastatals are not performing creditably to correct the anomalies within them. Some of the problems faced by government in the privatization and commercialization of government owned parastatals are:
- Inability to run the administration of the parastatals effectively.
- Poor financing of these parastatals
- Inefficiency of the officials charged with the responsibility of managing the organization.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
In view of the identified problems militating against public enterprise this study intends:
(a) To determine the problems faced by the management of these public enterprises.
(b) To determine how privatization and commercialization of government parastatals will aid profit maximization in a growing economy like ours.
(c) To determine ways of improving the management of public sector organizations.
1.4 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
HO: privatization of public enterprise will not change public sector dependents to market driven end private sector oriented.
H1: Privatization of p public enterprise will not change public sector dependents to market driven end private sector oriented.
H0: Privatization will not make public enterprises or parastatals more efficient.
H1: Privatization will make public enterprises or parastatals more efficient.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1) Will the privatization and commercialization of oil sector, for instance help Nigeria economy?
2) Does privatization and commercialization of the public sector change it to dependent market derivation and private sector oriented?
3) To what extent will the privatization of public enterprises ensure more efficiency thereby satisfying the economy and the general public?
1.6 THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is no doubt of great importance to the federal and state government of Nigeria in the sense that it will help to enhance their policy inputs to the public enterprises.
The outcome also helps the government to improve the public sector and examine the performance of the public sector. The study will serve as a base for solution to other economic problems confronting the various governments to understand the implications of their unhealthy uncrounchement on the government parastatals.
The study will also be used to students of business studies who may in their various research programmes as well as other authors who may wish to write on this important topic. The outcome will enable the out comes, that is the general public and government to be more efficient to the large size of the population the information got from a sample size cannot apply one hundred percent to the population.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is by no means exhaustive but a useful attempt is made to private sector into the core of the issue. However, the researcher confronted with so many conflicting problems.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The researcher was confronted with so many conflicting problems which include:
The answer to the questions are limited to Enugu environment including staff of Enugu Airport and the staff of Nigerian National Petroleum company (NNPC) Enugu head quarter Emene as well as other government parastatals in same zone.
There are problems of hostility to questions by some of the staff interviewed while some were insensitive to the dissolve of certain vital questions which were sensitive for this research work.
The time and period within which this research was conducted was not enough to permit for elaborate research.
Besides, financial constraints did not make it easier job for the collection of data beyond Enugu.
Some respondents may have given the answers which were doctored in order to should some officials form the balances arising form these problems.
It must be emphasized that due to the large size of the population the information a sample size can not apply one hundred percent to the population.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
This section will aim at defining some of the technical terms used in the course of this project writing.
(i) Militating: It is defined as a king of situation making things difficult to happen.
(ii) Promulgation can be defined as an announcement of a new law or system officially or publicly.
(iii) Privatization: This is the transfer of government equity holdings to the private individual to manager far profit orientation.
(iv) Monumental: This is defined as a very large task ahead.
(v) Realigning: This is to charge the position or direction of a thing slightly.
(vi) Ailing: This can be defined as a thing that can cause problem for something.