DEVELOPMENT AND USE OF NONWOOD PLANT FIBERS IN PULP AND PAPERMAKING
1.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The earlist information about usage of grasses as a writing material dates back to 3000 be in Egypt where the pressed pith tissue of papyrus sedge Cyperus Papyrus L. was the most widely used writing material. Actual papermaking was discovered by a Chinese Ts’ ai Lun in 105 AD, when he found a way of making sheets using fibres from hemp rags and mulberry plant. Straw was used for the first time as a raw material for paper in 1800, and in 1827 started the first commercial mill to pulp straw in the USA Atchison and MCGovern 1987. In the 1830’s Anseline payer found a resistant fibrous material which exists in most plant tissue, payen 1842. The substance, which the French Academy named Cellulose in 1839, Brongiart et al, 1839, Hon 1994. This was the turning point in the use of all fibres, and it led to the invention of the new pulping methods which used soda, sulphite or sulphate as a cooking chemical. Paper could be made from ceveal straw, reed, esparto grass, independence weed and even from wood became the main raw material for paper.
During the next several centuries, the art of papermaking grew far and wide from Japan in the east, to siam “now Thailand in the south, to Chinese Turkestan in the west.
In Turkestan, in 751 AD, papermaking was learned by the Arabs who brought it westward over their trade routes. Papermaking reached Samarkand, Baghdad 793AD, Damascus, Cairo 900AD and fez 1100AD. From there it spread to Spain in 1151AD then to France in 1348AD and later on to Germany in 1390AD. In the region where paper mulberry bamboo and China grass as linen and cotton rags were used. Atchison and Micgovern, 1989.
In Europe and North America active research has been Undertaken to find a new non-wood raw material for paper production. The driving force was the shortage of short-fibre raw material i.e hardwood in Nordic countries which export pulp and paper and, at the same time face problem of agricultural over production. The consumption of paper, especially fine paper, continuous to grow, which will increase the demand of short-fibre pulp, paavilianen 1996.
Today, the highest ratio of nonwood to total papermaking pulp capacities are in the developing market economics of Asia, Africa and Latin America, as well as the centrally planned economics of Asia. Some of these regions have more nonwood plant pulping capacities. Than wood pulping capacities indeed, China has more than twice as much.
Further, total nonwood plant pulping capacity worldwide is increasing faster than the wood pulping capacity. Their respective annual rates of increase were 6% for annually nonwood as compared to 2% annually for wood pulp during the period from 1988-1993. It is expected to be 2.5% annually for nonwood and 1% for wood during the period from 1993-1988. As a result, nonwood plant pulp capacity as percentage of total papermaking pulp capacity”, has increased from 6.7% in 1970 to 10.6% in 1993. It currently stands at 10.4% and is expected to reach. 11.2% by 1998.
Of the total 20,887,000 metric tons of nonwood plant fiber pulp produced in 1995, 15, 957,000 metric ton were produced in China. This accounts for over 76 percent total world wood fiber. Pulp production and over 83% of total Chinese pulp production. At the same time, the level of pollution from these mills is very high. In 1976, Nan ping city, a mid-size city in Fujian province, had 86 small papermills. These paper mills discharged 19million gal/year of waste water and 26,000 ton/year of COD 51% of the total COD discharge for the city. Some of these mills were closed 1996 Xing 1996.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The research work is on the production of pulp and paper from Awolowo grass. Growth in pulp and paper production entails massive falling of trees, which in turn leads to deforestation. Increasing competition for wood supplies coupled with gradually rising lost wood plant fibers for papermaking. The demand for nonwood plant fibers for papermaking is expected to increase in the highly industrialized nations of Europe and North America due to the above environmental concern like depleting forest resources and disposal of agricultural residues.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The aim of this project are threefold, to study the forces responsible for development and use of nonwood plant fibers in pulp and papermaking and also to identify technological and economical problems associated with use of nonwood plant fibres in pulp and paper making and solution available and then to review the use of fibers in paper industry and identify opportunity available.
1.4 SCOPE/LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
1.4.1 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this project will cover the process of pulp and paper making using nonwood fibers and the study will be focused on determining the properties of nowood fibers, describe the method of production, look at the procedures for pulp and paper making and application of nonwood fibers.
1.4.2 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
During the research work lots of barriers were encountered such as fund, this was a major bottle neck in the course of this study, the purchase of materials for production, transportation requires lots of money in order to achieve a researchable. Time: due to some other school engagement such as lectures, reading, assignment and quiz e.t.c the study posed huge threat resulting from limited time.
1.5 METHOD OF RESEARCH
The method of research involves two aspect
The Descriptive method is concern with the study of library, Article journals, and also the use of internet browsing while
Laboratory research method involves conducting experiment, obtain result and result analysis.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The production of pulp and papermaking has played a significance role in mankind and industries. The study helps student to gain practical or laboratory experience it also create employment opportunity for the teeming unemployment youth in this country. It also booster industrial utilization of local raw material available in the immediate environment.