CO-OPERATIVE AS AN INSTRUMENT FOR WOMEN ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT IN ENUGU SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA
The project was concerned with how Co-operative as an Instrument for Women Economic Empowerment in Enugu South Local Government Area. In other to actually identify the activities of the various societies towards empowering women, A stratified random sample of 361 respondents i.e. 20% of the total target population was drawn and considered for the studyfrom the entire Enugu South Local government with an estimate of 12 differentcooperative societies with a total membership of 1805.The main findings revealed, co-operative societies suffer from insufficient capital, problem in management, conflict among members, government policy, illiberally and lack of training facilities as well as personnel. There is lack of motivation on members due to absence of direct reward for individual effort. Excessive government regulation and control may also pose problem for them. Lastly, co-operative societies are suitable in protecting the weaker section of the rural area from exploitation and promoting their economic interest. While we recommend that Government should liberalized co-operatives by loosening its grip on co-operatives to allow for self-help and self-responsibility principles of cooperativeness. Fund canalization through the cooperative societies by the government, NGOs and commercial banks for sustainable small, medium enteritis’s should be protruded.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page - - - - - - - - - - i
Approval page - - - - - - - - - ii
Dedication- - - - - - - - - - iii
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - - iv
Abstract - - - - - - - - - - v
Table of content- - - - - - - - - vi
CHAPTER ONE :
1.0 INTRODUCTION - - - - - - - - 1
1.1 Background of the study - - - - - - - 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem - - - - - - 2
1.3 Objectives of the Study - - - - - - - 3
1.4 Research Questions - - - - - - - 4
1.5 Research Hypotheses - - - - - - 4
1.6 Scopeof the study. - - - - - - - 5
1.7 Limitation of the Study- - - - - - - 6
1.8 Definition of some terms - - - - - - 6
CHAPTER TWO : REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Conceptual Review of Literature - - - - 7
2.2 Theoretical framework-- - - - - - - 24
2.3 Emperical review - - - - - - - - 26
2.4 Summary of the literature review - - - - - 28
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design : - - - - - - 32
3.2 Area of the study - - - - - - - 32
3.3 Population for the Study - - - - - - 33
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques - - - - - 33
3.5 Instrument for Data Collection - - - - - 33
3.5 Validation of the Instrument- - - - - - 34
CHAPTER FOUR : ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION OF DATA
4.1 Introduction : - - - - - - - - 38
4.2 Data Presentation and Analysis - - - - - 40
4.3 Discussion of Findings- - - - - - - - 40
CHAPTER FIVE : DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION.
5.1 Summary of findings: - - - - - - - 41
5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - - - 46
5.3 Recommendation - - - - - - - - 48
Refrences - - - - - - - - - - 50
1.1 Background of the study
Co-operative is an autonomous association of persons united voluntarily to meet their common social and cultural needs and aspirations through owned and democratically controlled enterprises (ICA 1995). Co-operative are based on the value of self help, self responsibility democracy, equally and solidarity. It is a business owned and controlled equally by the people who work there.
Co-operatives are dedicated to the values of openness, social responsibility and caring for others such as legal entities have a range of social characteristics; membership is open, meaning that anyone who satisfies certain non discriminatory conditions may join.
Before independence in 1960, women were born for subordination and obedience to their parents to begin with her husband then to their children later and to their duties always. But currently, apart from their domestic duties; women are also variable human resources for meaningful development. Gone are those days when women were confined primarily as house wives and symbols of wealth to the men/husbands. The increases in women activism and sprouting of women’s organization led to formation of an umbrella organization for all women’s society, which started in Nigeria in 1957 for the purpose of integration of different women organization into development process so that they can interact with the government and even with the outside world in order to get support and aid.
Co-operative brings women together for empowerment and to gain support from government. In order words, Co-operative is a vital instrument for women empowerment and realization of the vital role of women in the field of agriculture, education, health and commerce. The needs to properly organize, equip and increase the potentials of women towards national development become inevitable. It is certain that Co-operative society plays increasingly significant role in satisfying materials, social and political need of the rural and urban women in Nigeria in the Third National Development Plan (1975-1980), the Federal Republic of Nigeria made a policy objective of fostering the growth of Co-operatives as an instrument for achieving increased agricultural productivity and rural transformation. Some of these programmes such as the Better Life for Rural Women Programme, The Family Support Programme (FSP), FamilyEconomic Advanced Programme (FEAP) are specific strategies by the government to ensure women active participation in development. Co-operative societies are organized economic groups which are created to accomplish one or more functions, including facilitating production, marketing, purchasing, supplying and the provision of credit facilities to its members.
Ijere (1981:114) opined that we were yet to experience women’s full participation in Co-operative societies.
1.2 Statement of the problem
Cooperatives play vital role in Socio- economic betterment,In line with the poverty reduction program, different strategies and programs have been drafted and implemented by government to back the economy of the country on track. Among these development programs, organizing different classes of people through cooperatives that enable them to solve their common economic and social problems is given more attention. Generally, it is believed that production and productivity can be improved through expansion of cooperatives as a base line for development. Cooperative institutions and especially the agricultural cooperatives are the agencies which hold enormous potential for the development of women, and more particularly the rural women. Regardless of the level of development achieved by the respective economies, women play a pivotal role in development in most developing countries.
Evidently there are serious constraints which militate against the promotion of an effective role for women in development in those societies which were bound by age-old traditions and beliefs.
It is, therefore, from the above general conditions that the need arose to conduct this socio-economic assessment (survey) to be able to see the present concrete situation of low status of women and identify the roles of cooperatives in promoting women’s empowerment and to propose development interventions in the localities of the people that possibly improve the future socioeconomic mechanisms of the members.
Co-operative societies as proven veritable instruments for development, could be the answer to solving some of these difficulties women face in their quest for economic empowerment.
1.3 Objectives of the study
The general objectiveof the study is to examine how women in Enugu South Local Government Area can be economically empowered through Co-operative societies.
The main specific objectives are:
1. To examine the exent whch co-operative societies empower women in Enugu South Local Gvernment.
2. To examine the extent of women participation in co-operative activities in Enugu South Local Government.
3. To determine the extent to which these co-operative societies promote the members economically.
4. To make recommendations based on the findings on how the efficiency of the women co-operative societies can be enhanced.
1.4 Research questions
1. To what exent has co-operative societies emporwer women in Enugu South Local Gvernment?
2. To what extent has women participated in co-operative activities in Enugu South Local Government?
3. To what extent does co-operative societies promote the members economically.
4. What recommendations are needed to improve on the efficiency of these co-operatives?
1.5 Significance of the study
This study is very important particularly now that all levels of government are interested in getting women more involved in rural and national development and a lot of emphasises is being placed on research on women participation in national life, not only in the country but also at the international level. There are number of stakeholders and interested parties who/which can benefit from the findings and recommendations of this research project. Government at all levels will find the findings and recommendations of interest, because they can guide them in policy making various spheres of national life. Development partners, including foreign governments, and international organizations and NGOs can benefit from the information and data contained in this work as they will serve as a source of information. Researchers and students interested in women in development (W.I.N) and co-operatives can equally find research project of some interest since it provide information and date on women participation and development a subject matter which almost every citizen shows interest in. Women themselves and their association will also find this work of special interest since it pinpoints their contributions to development and also provides guidelines for their involvement in co-operatives. Co-operatives societies and their members can also benefit from this work since it critically examined certain issues concerning them. The findings on the problems and recommendations can serve as guideline to them for future decision and actions.
1.6 Scope of the study
The research work is limited to Enugu South Local Government Area of Enugu State and spans between 2007-2014, a period of seven years, the main issues discussed are; the reasons why women form or join co-operative societies; the types of co-operative societies they form or join; the extent these co-operative societies have promoted women, the problems faced by these co-operatives and the necessary recommendations.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
The researcher faced a number of challenges when writing this project the literature review was difficult to write because the university library is deplete of the necessary books and reference materials.
Secondly, it was difficult to get the cooperation of the respondents namely the director of co-operatives in Enugu state; the co-operative societies in Enugu South Local Government Area and the members of the societies. It took a lot of time to finally get their co-operation.
1.8 Definition of some terms
Definitions of the terms or the underlisted terms are used in this work.
1. Co-operative society: The International Co-operative Alliance (ICA; 1995) has defined a persons united voluntarily to meet their common economic social and cultural needs and aspirations through a jointly owned and democratically controlled enterprises (ICA, 1995).
2. Women empowerment: Promoting actions and activities to improve the education and development of women civil political, social-cultural and economic sectors etc.
3. National development: This refers to the ability of a country or countries to improve the social welfare of the people, for example by providing social amenities like good education, infrastructure, medical care and social services.
4. Enlightenment: This involves creating awareness getting people aware of the current happening. It is very important for modernization and changes.