DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF WIRELESS BATCH COUNTING DEVICE FOR BREWERY
This project deals on the design and implementation of Radio frequency RF based wireless batch counting device for brewery capable of counting the bottled drinks /product in a conveyor and displays the value numerically and wireless to it receiver installed about 100meters away. It is realized in top-down methodology using passive and active components available in the local market. This electronic system is designed in two functional units, the transmitter and the receiver and they communicate by the principle of electrical resonance using Rf transmission wave band. The bottles are sensed using an opto-couple, transmitted to the receiver using Rf module and displayed using a 2-digit seven segment display. The system is packaged in a portable plastics casing, the result being a Rf based wireless batch counting device for brewery. It is not micro program control and displays from 00-99 (one hundred counts).
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page - - - - - - - - - i
Certification page - - - - - - - - ii
Approval page - - - - - - - - iii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - iv
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - v
Abstract - - - - - - - - - vi
Table of content - - - - - - - - vii
List of tables - - - - - - - - - ix
List of figures - - - - - - - - x
1.1. Background of the study - - - - - - 1
1.2. Problem statement - - - - - - - 1
1.3. Aim and objectives - - - - - - 2
1.4. Significant of the project - - - - - - 2
1.5. Scope of the project - - - - - - 3
1.6. Project report organization- - - - - - 3
1.7. Definition of terms - - - - - - - 4
2.1. Analysis of the exiting system - - - - - 5
2.2. Historical development of the project - - - - 5
2.3. Analysis of the proposed system - - - - - 6
2.4. Application of the project - - - - - - 7
2.5. Electromagnetic spectrum - - - - - - 7
2.6.2. Transistor static switch and electromagnetic - - - 12
2.7. Other system components - - - - - - 15
3.1. Description of the system building blocks - - - 23
3.2. Block diagram Development into working circuit - - 23
3.3. System design specification - - - - - 24
3.4. Power supply unit - - - - - - - 25
3.5. Principle of operation of the system - - - - 26
3.6. System design calculation - - - - - - 27
3.6.1. Choice of filter capacitor - - - - - - 27
3.6.2. Choice of laser diode - - - - - - 28
3.6.3. Design of transistor circuit diagram - - - - 31
3.7. Explanation of the circuit diagram - - - - 32
4.1. Implementation - - - - - - - 33
4.2. Testing - - - - - - - - 33
4.3. Result - - - - - - - - 33
4.4. Project packaging - - - - - - - 34
5.1. Conclusion - - - - - - - - 36
5.2. Recommendation - - - - - - - 36
References - - - - - - - 37
Components list - - - - - - - 38
LIST OF TABLES
4.1. Bill of Engineering Quality - - - - - - 34
LIST OF FIGURES
2.1. Physical layout of seven segment display - - - 11
2.2. Schematic diagram of seven segment display - - - 11
2.3. A typical Resistor - - - - - - - 15
2.4. Resistor in series - - - - - - - 16
2.5. A typical Electrolytic Capacitor - - - - - 17
2.6. A Transformer - - - - - - - 18
2.7. A Typical PN Junction Diode - - - - - 20
2.8. Diagram of IC linear voltage regulator - - - - 21
3.1. The transmitter block diagram - - - - - 24
3.2. The block diagram of the receiver - - - - - 24
3.3. Block diagram of the regulated supply - - - - 26
3.4. The Transmitter circuit diagram - - - - - 30
3.5. The Circuit diagram of the receiver - - - - 31
RADIO FREQUENCY BASED WIRELESS BATCH COUNTING DEVICE FOR BREWERY
1.1. Background of the Study
Owing to the high rate of industrial espionage and theft, industrial security techniques need to be improved to arrest/combat pilfering in industries. This project work tries to bring in an improved security measure which can be used to check pilfering in Brewery industries. Pilfering of bottled drinks is a common theft in Breweries. And this act is perpetrated in the conveyor before a standalone counting device takes account of it. This has a tremendous effect on the stature of the fire – if it is not properly checked, could lead to liquidation and bankrupts of the firm.
Conventionally, there is a batch counting device that counts the bottled drinks and displays the values numerically at same spot carrier criminals who pilfer the products divert it before the counter. This chronology in social vices in the brewery industry has motivated me to embark on a project that is capable of counting/the bottled drinks in the capable of counting/the bottled drinks in the conveyor and display the value numerical and wirelessly (using Rf transmission waveband) to its receiver installed about 100m away. This device will count the product before it gets to the standalone version. This technique will help to check pilfering and bring industrial espionage to halt.
1.2. Problem Statement
Brewery industries all over world face the problem of pilfering of the products by the workers most frequently in the conveyer. This menace gave way to the development of a stand alone batch counting device which is usually installed in the conveyors to record the total number of bottled products. This techniques is facing serious threat since the bad-eggs pilfer/divert the products before it gets to the counter.
Owing to the challenges mentioned above, there is need to develop a system which will be installed at the entry point of the conveyors to count the products without the consent of the workers and display the value to a receivers unit installed in the manager office using Radio-frequency technology.
1.3. Aims and Objectives
The aim of this project is to design and implement a Radio frequency based wireless batch counter capable of counting bottled drinks/products and display it at a remote location.
1. To develop system which can communicate using Radio frequency technology.
2. To develop an opto coupler module which can detect opaque objects like bottle using laser diode and visible light
3. To develop a 2-digit decimal counting unit which can count from 00-99.
4. To develop a system which is pure hardwired. No micro-program.
5. To develop a power supply unit that can power Rf device.
1.4. Significance of the Project
This project work signifies a lot in telecom, computer and electronic engineering it is very useful in a number of domestic places like in bedroom and security lamps in the compound. A project of this type if modified can be used as a gate/door opening system, car immobilizer and for industrial process control. Another vital significance of this system is in the control of Air conditioner and refrigerators and other lamps in modern buildings. This system can be used to start and stop a power generating set from a distance.
1.5. Scope of the Project
This project work covers the following; Tuned Radio-frequency transmitter and receiver modules, Ne555 timer, Decimal counting unit, Decoders and transistors and electromagnetic relay. It also lays great emphasis on passive and active components used to implement the system. It also x-rays the mode of calculations of the basic parameters used in the design and other areas of application of the device. This report elaborates on the block diagram and principle of operation of the system.
1. This project work is focused on the design and implementation of Rf batch counter for brewery.
2. It is a prototype of the real-life system due to the ratings of the components used to implement it.
3. It can only count products in an opaque bottle? (Filled or partially filled)
4. It uses only Radio frequency to communicate with the receiver
5. The system is powered using power from MAINS.
6. The receiver displays a maximum of 100 counts (00-99) and does not contain a memory device for storage of data.
1.7. Project Report Organization
This project report is presented in six chapters to appropriately illustrate the steps involved in its implementation. Chapter one introduce the design overview, objectives and significance of the project. Chapter two is basically the literature review and some theories relevant to the design. Chapter three is on the system design analysis while chapter four elaborates on the implementation, testing and result. Finally chapter five summarizes the entire thesis and recommendations.
1.8. Definition of Terms:
2. Radio frequency (Rf): this is the rate of oscillation within the range of in the electromagnetic wave spectrum.
3. Control logic generator: this module also called the signal conditioning unit generates the logic which is needed to bias a transistor driver or to trigger/clock a resettable IC. It is realized with schmitt trigger NAND gate.
4. Inductive Kick-Back Diode: This is diode that is connected across the terminals (coil) of an inductive load to prevent inductive kick-back when it is switched off/de-energized.
5. Resonance: This is a phenomenon which occurs when a vibrating body set another body into vibration until both vibrate at the same natural frequency. It is the principle behind Rf communication.
6. Frequency modulation: This is a technique of signal transmission in which the frequency of the signal is varied while the amplitude and phase remain constant.
7. One shot delay: This is multivibrator circuit configure monostable mode which gives out a one-shot pulse when it is triggered. It is used to delay proceeding operation.