IMPACT OF LANGUAGE LABORATORY FOR EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF ORAL ENGLISH IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL
(A CASE STUDY OF ENUGU NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA)
The theoretical frame work for this study was provided by the review of literature was also prepared to enable the researcher collect enough data in regards to the study. Information was sought through primary sources such as questionnaires were used in data collection. The findings of the research work were presented in tabular form and analyzed using simple percentage. The purpose of the study is that, to find out if there are enough language laboratories available for effective teaching and learning of the English language in secondary schools. Their significance, is to provide invaluable information to the government, the Nigeria Educational Research center, the curriculum planners. The design of it is to determine the impact of the Language Laboratory on effective teaching and learning of English Language in secondary Schools. The population of the study were 25 teachers in number and there was no sampling. Administration of instrument and data collection are primary data and secondary data. The information instrument used for this research study. The supervisor approved the questionnaire before we used it.
Everything was gotten as a result of hard work and since the Enugu North Local Government Area was interviewed by the researchers are reliable personal and their contribution has helped the researchers to carryout the research work effectively, method of data analysis, the researchers got their information from newspapers,
Background of the Study
In one sense, we are being educated all the time, to the extent that everything that happens to us may bring about some changes in the way we feel, think, act and obviously the way we speak. We learn from the things we hear, from the circumstances in which we live, the people we meet, ideas in books or papers. In fact everything that surrounds us and of which we experience is educating us and our children all the time.
For the process of education to function effectively, the school curriculum is taken into consideration. Therefore, curriculum is the term used to indicate a group of subjects or field of study arranged in a particular sequence. According to Puckett (1979) Curriculum is the selection, organization and administration of a body of subject matter designed to lead the pupil on the same definite life objective.
In spite of the fact that so many aspects of man’s knowledge compete today for inclusion as subjects in the school curriculum, at least one modern language continues to maintain the right to a place in the secondary school curriculum. All those who believe that the study of a modern language other than one’s own has an important part to play in the development of the adolescent, a part which perhaps today is even more essential than in the past, are content that this should be so. It has been observed that in theory and practice whenever circumstances allows the advantages inherent in such a study are beneficial to children in secondary schools.
Language according to Webster’s Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language: Is the body of wards and systems of use common to a people who are of the same community or nation, the same geographical area or the same cultural tradition. Language is human speech either spoken or written. Whenever there is a human society, there is language. Most forms of human activity depend on the co-operation of two or more persons. A common language enable human beings to work together in an infinite variety or ways.
Lieberman (1984) argues that human language is built on a biological based that is present in other primates, and that both humans and animals have innate neural mechanisms which are matched to their respective sound producing mechanisms. Yet most linguists will readily agree that only human’s have language proper and that the possession of language put humans at considerable advantage compared with other species.
English is one of the major languages out of about 5000 estimated language spoken in the World. About 200 years ago, English was simply the language of less than 15 million peoples. Today, however, English is used by more than 300 million people and second only to Chinese as regards the number of people using a particular language. English is one of the most influential and fast growing languages spoken across the globe.
One fifth of the earth’s land surface use English either as native tongue or official language. Of the entire world’s languages, English is the most widely studied language; especially in areas where it is not native. Today, English is used in several countries in the American continent including the United States of America and Canada, New Zealand, Republic of South Africa, Australia and Canada, New Zealand, Republic of countries in the Wes African subcontinent. Though English was actually the language of colonization in these countries, like India colonized territories.
In other countries including Japan and China English is usually taught as the chief foreign language. Equally about half of the world’s scientific and technical journals, as well as newspapers, are printed in English. The spread of English is further enhanced through the establishment of British Council and United States information service by the British and U.S. governments respectively with centers and libraries in various countries including Nigeria. All these factors have therefore made it easy for anyone who understands and speaks English, and moves around major cities in the world to communicate effectively with one another.
According to Anibueze, (2007), English Language is a lingua franca. As lingua franca, it is the Language for unification. It is highly established so that the people of varied languages will have purposes to relate together mutually and work in union. For example, Hausa man may comfortably stay and effectively speak with a Yoruba man or an Igbo man, and vice versa.
The English Language had remained a very important tool for socialization and bureaucratic activities in Nigeria, since the days of colonialism. It was only natural that emphasis was laid on spoken English only and either on written English or both of them. However, with the emergence of a new class of people, with time, the civil servants, and their new roles in the colonial administration, the teaching and learning of the language took another form.
Today, English is the Language for the international community, according to Ezugu (1998), the English Language is the most widely spoken language in the world. It is used as either a primary or secondary language in many countries. It is the language of education, administration, law, world trade, international diplomacy as well as that of cultural.
It is, therefore worth while acquiring mastery of this very important language for whoever does not, has deprived himself of access to the world’s brightest ideas and modern technologies.
In Nigeria today, English remains the language of pedagogy, students can hardly make commendable progress in their studies without adequate mastery of English through which most of the course in primary, secondary and tertiary institutions are taught and examined.
This calls for a system that would be both rudimentary and functional its approach.
This is important for according to Umaru (2005) as a student learns a new Language, very often he does not know how to express what he wants to say in writing.
Since the student uses a foreign Language as a medium of communication, he has to start from the scratch to learn the rudiments of the Language. It is natural then that this is the function where the various problem arising then that this is the function where the various problem arising from the teaching and learning of the Language meet the need to do so properly.
Language Teaching, according to Oluikpe (2005) stated that the basic criteria for assessing students’ proficiency in writing and speaking are generally control of the basic grammatical categories such as punctuation, tense, number, gender etc. Language Teaching in Nigeria had fought with deficiencies. The major reason for these deficiencies is our English teacher who are not well-trine only but are also non-professionals. And even if they are somewhat trained, their training is rooted in to the work. A situation where a teacher of the language has no mastery of its grammatical categories, as we see today, does not mean well for the system. Also writing on these problems facing Language teaching, according Regner et al (2001) ascertained that “many good teacher are adaptive rather than rigid in their approach to teaching children and only loosely base on their instruction on a given method.
Language is the official medium of communication of humans, it is one of the things that differentiate man from animals. Signs and symbols have no international understanding and may be difficult to understand. Picture, painting and sculptures cannot be read by all. This makes Language superior to all of them because it is easily understood and generally used. According to Ozohili (2007) Language literally means the “tongue” a human organ used in speaking. Traditionally, language is defined as system of arbitrary vocal symbols by which thoughts are communicated from one being to another.
Language Learning; Human beings have the ability to learn and to understand and think about things. He has the capacity to gain and use knowledge. He can as well explore situations, collect information, plan and execute the plans. Man’s high intelligence has also enabled him to evolve a level of linguistic communication by which life can be regulated. Theodore (2001) stated that Language learning requires thoroughly time, patience and practice. It cannot be done solely in school with the large class but requires few minutes of daily practice for individual students.
Therefore pupils, and students should be encouraged to practice this language in their leisure in order to master the language as required.
Methodology: The methodology here refers to the method by which the teacher presents his materials to the learners and engages them in the task at hand.
Methodology is very vital in every teaching-learning situation. For according to Robert (2003) for effective teaching and learning to take place, the skillful teacher needs to use the many different methods and techniques at his command. Even though there is a great diversity in teaching methods and techniques there is no one of them that can be regarded as the best for every teaching situation. This is however assumed that carefully designed teaching method can work wonders in making learning more effective.
The teaching materials: The teaching materials involves the dominance of textbooks, dictionaries, chalk boards work books. (which are rarely used) and posters in the teaching of English Language in secondary schools in Enugu North Local Government Area of Enugu State has been counter-productive. Modern media such as: audio and video tapes, Language Laboratories, programmed texts, flash cards, computers, magazines and newspaper are not in use. These findings agree with those of Kolawole (2000) who found that with many problems, such as inadequate and useful resources.
Modern language laboratory is really one of the newest media that is making a lot of impact in our educational scene. The language laboratory is an audio or audio-visual installation used as an aid in laboratory each student is able to replay one track of a tape and at the same time record his response on another track. He is then able to rewind the tape to listen to both the master track and the recording to his own response comparing the two recordings.
Statement of the Problem
The problem of this study is to find our f the language laboratory has an impact on effective teaching and learning of English Language in secondary schools.
The most serious problem confronting learners of a second language is that the language is not widely used in their immediate environment. As a result, the learner has no exposure to the language of his immediate environment has many teachers made up of the people with whom he interacts daily. The second language learner has to make up for out-of-school opportunities to learn.
In most cases, teachers who teach second languages are themselves not native speakers. So they neither speak the language fluently nor intelligibly. But they are not to be blamed because of the interference of the mother tongue.
The researchers, therefore, deemed it necessary to find out the impact of the language laboratory n the teaching and learning of English language.
Purpose of the Study
The aim of this research is to highlight the impact of the language laboratory on effective teaching and learning of the English language.
1. To find out if there are enough language laboratories available for effective teaching and learning of the English language in secondary schools.
2. To find out the major inputs of the language laboratory on the effective teaching and learning of English language as it affects the teachers of the language in secondary schools.
3. To find out the major impact of the language laboratory on the effective teaching and learning of the English language as it affects the teacher trainee of the language in secondary school.
Significance of the Study
Findings from this study will provide invaluable information to the government, the Nigeria Educational Research centre, the curriculum planners, because through this research an awareness will be created for the installation of language laboratories.
The research is expected to enable teachers of the English language to identify problems and becomes aware of the factor that hamper the teaching of English and how to deal with them. Students will also be aware of their major “road blocks” to speaking and be able to find means of overcoming them.
Finally, findings from this study will be to all those involved in the teaching of English language in Enugu North and country at large.
Scope of the Study
This study is limited to investigating the impact of language laboratory on effective teaching and learning of English language is some selected schools in Enugu North
The study is limited to the availability of language laboratories, the qualification of English teachers and the teaching methods, the impact of the language laboratory on students performance, and finally the mother tongue interference.
1. Are there enough language laboratories for the effective teaching and learning of English language in secondary schools in Enugu North?
2. Are there enough qualified teachers to teach the English language?
3. Does the interference of the mother tongue necessitate the use of the language laboratory?
4. What method do teachers use in the teaching of oral English?