EXTENT OF INTEGRATION OF PRACTICALS INTO TEACHING OF CHEMISTRY A CASE STUDY OF SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ENUGU SOUTH L.G.A. OF ENUGU STATE
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Extent Of Integration Of Practicals Into Teaching Of Chemistry A Case Study Of Senior Secondary Schools In Enugu South L.g.a. Of Enugu State

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EXTENT OF INTEGRATION OF PRACTICALS INTO TEACHING OF CHEMISTRY

A CASE STUDY OF SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ENUGU SOUTH L.G.A. OF ENUGU STATE

ABSTRACT

The research work sought to find the extent of integration of practical into teaching chemistry in Senior Secondary Schools in Enugu South L.G.A Enugu State. Research questions were raised and questionnaire was used to elicit responses from the students. The information so obtained were subject to analysis using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results of the statistical analysis showed that these students are sufficiently aware of the impact of the integration of practical in teaching chemistry, Such encouraging results suggest that, enhancing practical classes would improve the technological level of sciences in Nigerian educational system and individual student interest in sciences. Topics for further research and recommendations were also made.


TABLE OF CONTENT

 

Title page                                                                                        i

Declaration                                                                                      ii

Approval                                                                                         iii

Certification                                                                                    iv

Dedication                                                                                       v

Acknowledgment                                                                           vi

Abstract                                                                                           vii
Table of Content                                                                           viii

List of Tables                                                                                  xi

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background                                                                          1

1.2     Statement of Problems                                                         3

1.3     Purpose of Study                                                                  4

1.4     Significance of the Study                                                     5

1.5     Research of Question                                                           5

1.6     Scope of the Study                                                               6

 

CHAPTER TWO    

LITERATURE REVIEW                                                           9

2.1     Meaning of Science                                                              9

2.2     Brief History of Science                                                      10

2.3     Nature of Science                                                                 11

2.4     Development of Science                                                      13

2.4.1  Theory Stage                                                                         14

2.4.2  Nature of Chemistry as Science                                          15

2.5     Brief History of Chemistry                                                  16

2.6     Needs for Practical Integration into Teaching and Learning of Chemistry in Secondary Schools                                        18

2.7     Importance of Practical Integrations into Teaching and

          Learning of Chemistry                                                         20

2.8     Factors Affecting the Achievement of Secondary School Chemistry Students in Relation to Studying Chemistry in the Laboratory      23

 

CHAPTER THREE     

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND PROCEDURE          28

3.1          Introduction                                                                          28

3.2          Design of Study                                                                    28

3.3          Area of Study                                                                        28

3.4          Population                                                                             28

3.5          Sampling and Sampling Techniques                                  30

3.6          Methods for Data Collection                                               32

3.6.1   Primary Data Collection                                                      32

3.6.2   Secondary Data Collection                                                  32

3.7          Constructions Reliability and Validity of the Methods

for Data Collection                                                               33

3.8     Method of Data Analysis                                                     33

 

 

CHAPTER FOUR  

PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA                     34

 

CHAPTER FIVE

DISCUSSIONS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION  42

5.1     Discussion of Result                                                            42

5.2     Implication of the Study                                                      43

5.3     Limitations of the Study                                                      44

5.4     Suggestion for Further Research                                         45

5.5     Recommendations                                                                46

5.5     Summary and Conclusion                                                   46

 

 

References                                                                                       48

Appendix                                                                                        52


LIST OF TABLES

Table 1.1    Presentation of Data Table of Senior Secondary

                    School in Enugu South Local Government Area    6

Table 1.2    Presentation of Data Table of Senior Secondary Schools Enrolment in Enugu Local Government

                    Area 2009                                                                      7

Table 1.3    Presentation of Data Table fro Science Students of Senior Secondary School in Enugu South Local Government Area, 2009                                                                               8

Table 3.1    Presentation of Data Table of Senior Secondary Schools Enrolment in Enugu Local Government

                    Area 2009                                                                   29

Table 3.2    Presentation of Data Table for Science Students of Senior Secondary Schools in Enugu South

                    Local Government Area 2009                                   30

Table 4.1    Result Presentation of Values Statistical Analysis of

                    Data Question One                                                     34

Table 4.2    Result Presentation of Values Statistical Analysis of

                    Data Question Two                                                    36

Table 4.3    Result Presentation of Values Statistical Analysis of

                    Data Question Three                                                  37

Table 4.4    Result Presentation of Values Statistical Analysis of

                    Data Question Four                                                    39


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

In Nigeria emphasis in developing our science and technological skills is very high because they are vital for economic and industrial development. The essence of this research work is to ascertain the level of practical integration in our senior secondary schools, to create awareness of it is importance into teaching and learning and recommendation of how to improve in our technological level as a nation.

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

In Nigeria science and technology is indispensable to use because it is the bedrock of our economic and industrial development. Basic as it is science and technology is in our daily human activities. It is worthy to note that the major advances made in Medicine, Pharmacy, Industrial Chemistry, Engineering are based on researches being conducted in many areas of science and technology such as Chemistry.

Chemistry is taught as a science subject in almost all Nigeria senior secondary schools even in the higher and tertiary institutions and these schools thus serve as the starting point for the teaching of introductory chemistry with the aim of training the students in the process of scientific investigations. Chemistry is one of the core-science subjects in our school because it is one of the entry requirements in some fields of studies such as Nursing, Medicine, Pharmacy, Engineering, Science Education, Biochemistry and so on.

The extent of integration of practicals in senior secondary schools has a lot to tell on any chemistry students especially in his or her final examination since no work is done on any science subject especially chemistry if there is no integration of practicals which helps in better assimilation of scientific theories for effective industrial output in the society.

The most influential science process established (Tamir, 1991) stated that the prerequisite knowledge of concept and principles can be obtained only if the students have certain underlying capability of the science processes, which are needed to practise and understand science subject especially in Chemistry. These processes include, making operational definitions, formulations, observing, classifying, measuring, formulating hypothesis, interpreting data collected from the observations, and drawing conclusions.

However, contents and concepts will undoubtedly change but the mental skill of the approach that is process skills is relevant to the solution of everyday problem. If a student can think scientifically, he can observe, make simple hypothesis, test them by experiment and make valid inferences and interpreted data, then the level of science and technology in our country will increase to its apex.

Finally, science which Chemistry is a branch is the foundation for scientific enquiry. They are the generalizable intellectual skills needed to learn concepts and broad theories and principles used in making valid inductive inferences. Unfortunately, in Nigeria today, it appears that students are deprived of acquiring the appropriate process skills they need by the society, government, the school, teachers or even themselves. It has been observed that students in this present era are not doing marvellously well especially in their science hence this poor performance in their practical examinations in senior school certificate examination affects the overall result.

For this reason the present research is focused to ascertain the extent of integration of practicals into teaching chemistry in senior secondary schools in Enugu South Local Government of Enugu State.

1.2     STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

In recent years, manpower and millions of naira have been devoted in efforts to improve science teaching in the schools because of the decrease in standard of education in Nigeria has fallen. The teaching of science subjects in Nigeria is now faced with lots of problems and they include among others:

1.              Scarcity of qualified science teachers in our schools.

2.              The quality and quantity of laboratory technologists employed in our schools.

3.              Inadequate laboratory facilities in our schools.

4.              Absence of laboratories in some schools.

In this present era there has been shortage of teachers with good knowledge of ways of imparting scientific knowledge and results has shown that laboratory method of teaching science subjects helps to increase our student scientific skills and knowledge thereby solving our country’s industrial and economic problems.

Based on the above, the obvious adverse problems as stated above, states the importance of this study, which tends to look into the extent or level of integration of practicals into teaching chemistry in senior secondary schools in Enugu South local Government Area of Enugu State.

1.3     PURPOSE OF STUDY

The purpose of this research work is to access the extent of integration of practicals into teaching chemistry in Senior Secondary Schools in Enugu South local government of Enugu State. More specifically, the study is aimed at: -

(a)           To ascertain the level of practical chemistry in senior secondary schools.

(b)           To determine the frequency of practical lessons into the teaching of chemistry.

(c)           To determine the problem inhibiting the integration of practicals into teaching chemistry in senior secondary schools.

(d)           To suggest solutions to problems encountered by chemistry and science students with regards to practicals.

1.4     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

Since every well researched work aimed at improving other existing research work in other to solve an existing problem; this present research will help in obtaining useful information concerning the extent of integration of practicals into teaching chemistry in senior secondary school classes and making appropriate recommendations that will improve or increase the overall performance in External Examinations.

It will also serve as a means of obtaining more information for further research work.

1.5     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

In view to actualize the purposes of this study, the following research questions have to be stated as a guide to the researcher.

a)    What is the extent of integration of practical into teaching chemistry in Senior Secondary School?

b)   What is the frequency of practical teaching of chemistry in the Senior Secondary School?

c)    What are the problems inhibiting teaching chemistry practicals in the Senior Secondary School?

d)   What are the possible recommendations or solution of these problems of laboratory method of teaching science subjects in our Senior Secondary School?

 

1.6     SCOPE OF THE STUDY

This study mainly focused on findings from Senior Secondary Schools in Enugu State specifically in Enugu south local government area. This local government is made up urban and rural area. Among the urban area include Awkunanaw, Uwani, Idwa- River, Maryland. While the rural areas include: Obeagu, Ugwaji, Ndiagu, Amechi and Akwuke.

 

Table 1.1: Presentation of Data Table of Senior Secondary School in Enugu South Local Government Area

 

AGBANI ZONE

S/N

Enugu South (SNR)

Boys

Girls

Co-Educ

Total

Remark

1

Union S. S. Awkunanaw

1

0

0

1

 

2

C. I. I. Enugu

1

0

0

1

Non-Dis

3

Uwani S. S. Enugu

1

0

0

1

 

4

Army Day S. S. Awkunanaw

0

0

1

1

 

5

Idaw-Rier G. S.S.

0

1

0

1

 

6

B.S.S. Maryland

1

0

0

1

 

7

H. R. C. Uwani

0

1

0

1

Non-Dis

8

G. G. R. S. Awkunanaw

0

1

0

1

 

9

C. S. S. Ugwuaji

0

0

1

1

 

10

C. S. S. Akwuke

0

0

1

1

 

11

C.S.S. Ndiagu Amechi

0

0

1

1

Non-Dis

12

C. S. S. Obeagu Awkunanaw

0

0

1

1

 

13

Chukwu Mem. S. S.

0

0

1

1

 

 

Total

4

3

6

13

 

Source: Post Primary School Management Board, Enugu, 2009

Mean while each of these areas that make up the local government area has both private and government owned senior secondary school, because of the limitation of this work, it centers more on the government owned senior secondary school.

The local government has thirteen (13) senior secondary school in total boy schools are four (4) and girls schools and three (3) while co-educational are six (6).

Table 1.2:  Presentation of Data Table of Senior Secondary Schools Enrolment in Enugu Local Government Area 2009

 

Enugu South (SNR)

Boys

Girls

Co-Educ

S/N

Name of School

M

F

T

1

Union S. S. Awkunanaw

430

0

430

2

Uwani  S.S Enugu

634

0

634

3

C. I. I. Enugu

1675

0

1675

4

Idaw-River G. S. S.

0

910

910

5

B. S. S. Maryland

175

0

175

6

G. G. R. S. Awkuannaw

0

669

669

7

C. S. S. Obeagu Awkunanaw

49

68

117

8

C. S. S. Ugwuaji

76

39

115

9

Army Day S. S. Awkunanaw

354

268

622

10

H. R. C. Enugu

0

1730

1730

11

Chukwu Mem. S. S.

22

36

58

12

C. S. S. Ndiagu Amechi

71

90

161

13

C. S. S. Akwuke

84

82

166

 

Total

3570

3892

7462

Source: Post Primary School Management Board, Enugu, 2009

Based on the above, and as result of cost of material; land other logistic and other physical problems the research is restricted to adopt random sampling method of some schools which will be taken to be evaluated as the obtainable value for the studied local government.

Table 1.3:  Presentation of Data Table for Science (Chemistry) Students of Senior Secondary Schools in Enugu South Local Govern78ment Area 2009

 

Enugu South (SNR)

Boys

Girls

Co-Educ

S/N

Name of School

M

F

T

1

Union S. S. Awkunanaw

220

0

220

2

Uwani  S.S Enugu

330

0

330

3

C. I. I. Enugu

950

0

950

4

Idaw-River G. S. S.

0

400

400

5

B. S. S. Maryland

50

0

50

6

G. G. R. S. Awkuannaw

0

410

410

7

C. S. S. Obeagu Awkunanaw

20

30

50

8

C. S. S. Ugwuaji

25

10

35

9

Army Day S. S. Awkunanaw

100

150

250

10

H. R. C. Enugu

0

1300

1300

11

Chukwu Mem. S. S.

10

20

30

12

C. S. S. Ndiagu Amechi

20

10

30

13

C. S. S. Akwuke

30

30

60

 

Total

1755

1190

2945

Source: Post Primary School Management Board, Enugu, 2009

 


 

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