IDENTIFICATION OF TEACHING TOPIC IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL BIOLOGY AND ENGLISH LANGUAGE.
A CASE STUDY OF SENIOR SECONDARY TWO CURRICULAR IN NIGERIA.
Nigeria is thoroughly made up of different State with different languages. English language and Biology continues to perform significant and elaborate functions in almost all the facets of our life.
A particularly unique place, where variability and vitality in the use of English is greatly experienced is in the domain of the mass media, mainly in newspaper, news reporting. While Biology help us to solve health problems. Here, activities in the areas of politics, education crime and law, sports, art and leisure, medicine, etc are daily reported through the medium of English. Daily publications, in English medium, remain the largest in Nigeria newspaper industry till date. Against that background, this paper examines the bases for the overbearing influence of English and Biology in Nigeria.
Recalling the history of English and Biology , linking its functions to Nigeria’s colonial background and utility values, respectively, this writer finds that English as a second language (ESL) has for a longtime continued to exhibit overt and covert lapses in the hands of our reporters and sub-editors, while trying to evolve an acceptable standard Nigeria English variety. Three daily newspaper publications: The daily sun, the punch and Saturday tribune are purposely selected, and news stories from them serve as data. The findings reveal that some of the Nigeria reporters are gradually using intelligible English in their writing style, while some structural grammatical lapses are still observable in the writing of several others. Biology also has improved in helping human life.
TABLE OF CONTENT
TITLE PAGE - - - - - - - -I
APPROVAL PAGE- - - - - - - -II
CERTIFICATION- - - - - - - -III
DEDICATION- - - - - - - - -IV
ACKNOWLEDGMENT- - - - - - -V
ABSTRACT- - - - - -- - - -VI
TABLE OF CONTENT- - - - - -VII
1.0 Introduction - - - - - - -1
1.1 Background of the study- - - - - -1
1.2 Statement of the problem- - - - -3
1.3 Purpose of the study- - - - - -5
1.4 Significance of the study - - - - -6
1.5 Research Questions - - - - - -7
1.6 Delimitation of the study- - - - - -7
1.7 Limitations of the study- - - - - -8
2.0 Introduction/ Literature Review- - - -11
2.1 Word identification- - - - - - -13
2.2 Emerging recalling and word-identification skills-15
2.3 Phonemic Awareness- - - - - 16
2.4 Instant Identification- - - - - -16
2.5 Context Clues - - - - - - -17
2.6 Biology Classification- - - - - -17
3.0 Research Methodology- - - - - -23
3.1 Research Design- - - - - - -23
3.2 Area of the study - - - - - -23
3.3 Population of the study - - - - -24
3.4 Sample and sampling Technique- - - -24
3.5 Instrument for data collection - - - -24
3.6 Validity of the instrument-- - - -25
3.7 Reliability of the instrument - - - -25
3.8 Method of data collection- - - - -25
3.9 Method of data analysis - - - - -25
4.0 Data Analysis and Results- - - -17
4.1 Research Question 1- - - - - -27
4.2 Research Question 2- - - - - -28
4.3 Research Question 3- - - - - -29
4.4 Research Question 4- - - - - -30
4.5 Research Question 5- - - - - -31
5.0 summary and conclusion, Recommendation- -33
5.1 Discussion of Findings - - - - -33
5.2 Summaryof Principal Findings- - - -34
5.3 Conclusions - - - - - - -36
5.4 Recommendations- - - - - - -38
1.1. BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The term identification is frequently used by teachers in secondary school to examine topic that are new to the students. Identification of teaching topic is the process of determining the pronunciation and some degree of meaning of an unknown. For topic that are in readers meaning vocabulary, unlocking the pronunciation leads to the topic meaning.
Until now evaluation studies on topic have not paid sufficient attention on the methodology used in the preparation of biology and English. Biology and English teaching strategies listed in the methodology curricular of biology and English education programmes in Nigeria and its relationship to the pre- service teacher educator’s instructional strategies was assessed. To achieve the objective of these stated aims, the teaching topic should depend on the provision of quality teachers education programmers. Quality teachers’ education in the content of this study implies how well the biology and English teachers in secondary school in Nigeria fit the National Education. We should know that curriculum is the set of courses, prospectors, programmed of study or syllabus offered at a school. Hence, a curriculum includes the range of topics from which students choose the subject matter to be studied in a particular programme as well as the teaching and assessment strategies to be used for those topics. Curriculum can be seen as all the activities that are geared towards the achievement of teaching goals. Curriculum can be divided into three parts. The intended, implemental and attained curriculum. And all at then geared for effective topic.
In teaching and identifying topic in biology for instance, attention must be paid in biology textbooks used in classroom teaching and laboratory work. The biology curriculum in schools is defined not only by topic of study but also by textbook will reflect the current topic to identify like Animal kingdom, plants, bacteria, fungi, plant, cell, ecosystem, living and non – living things, skeletons, reproduction and many others. These topics should be identify by names and classify by the student in senior secondary schools.
Moreover, teaching English to speakers of other language can be as challenging as learning English is for non- native speakers. Both the teacher and the students must have an established protocol for gaining understanding of pronunciation, words, concepts and cultural norms. There are numerous topics that can be identify, most of which can be grouped into four categories; reading skills development, vocabulary acquisition, separation and identification of concept and evaluation. Without research, centered identification of topics like parts of speech, pronunciation, writing and reading, vocabulary, grammar, oral English, concord and many others that will help student in senior secondary school to gain knowledge.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In Nigeria, identification of teaching topic in schools especially biology and English are not taking serious. We refused to know that most students cannot read and write, although clearly some can. Most of them did not know that words- identification skills may allow access to the words pronunciation, but not its meaning. Being able to arrive at the pronunciation of a printed word constitute words identification in the most minimal sense, however, if the reader is unable to identify a topic and attach meaning to it , then he or she has not read the word, since reading must end in meaning construction.
Many students learn new topic without difficulty. Many teachers introduce topics by teaching emerging readers to sing the alphabet then attach them to the letters forms while knowing letter names appears to facilitate the development of word- identification skills, it would be in-appropriate to delay introducing other new topic to students who have not know them. In English language, students identify topics with remarkable speed and accuracy. Indeed, fluent word identification appears to be a pre-requisite for comprehending text. If a reader of English topic must slowly analyze. Many of the words in a text, memory and attention needed for comprehension are drained but topic analysis.
Student in senior secondary school identify very few words instantly. Through repeated exposure to the same words, instant identification vocabulary grows. It is vital that student learn to identify those topics that occur very frequently in teaching process.
In biology, teaching strategies that have been recommended for science teachers to inculcate science process skills in their students includes demonstration, direct observation, field trip, group work laboratory activities and manipulations, Biology should be taught through on method approaches where students are placed in problem solving situation and surrounding them with appropriate materials that will enable them process information to solve scientific problems. This view conforms to the recent emphasis of the federal ministry of education on the use of field studies guided discovery, laboratory techniques and skills coupled with conceptual thinking as major teaching strategies for the implementation of the senior secondary school biology curriculum.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study is to identify the teaching topic in senior secondary school curricular in Nigeria which includes:
_ Emphasis on function methods of teaching biology and English.
_ Identification of difficult topic in biology and English language in Nigeria.
_ Infusion of relevant and functional skills needed in recognizing teaching topics.
_ bringing and identification of intended curriculum in teaching biology and English in secondary school in Nigeria.
_To find out the extent to which student see new topic in both subject.
_To educate and suggest some measure to be used to be taken by government to enhance effective teaching of biology and English.
1.4. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study will be of importance to government policy makers and leaders. It will be of great benefit for students and researchers on teaching topics and teachers by revealing to them reasons why they should identify teaching topic curriculum in the senior secondary school in Nigeria.
The study aims at providing a clear view and understanding of the importance topic that will transmit employable skills to students. It must be added that this study is of relevance not only to any particular country but also to developed and underdeveloped to promote academic level and economics co-operation which learning provides. Finally, writers in Nigeria will also find this work very useful.
1.5. RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Why does a student perform low in biology and English language?
Why does teacher apply poor teaching method in teaching topic?
What type of instructional material used in teaching topic?
What are the needed steps and methods to identify teaching topic?
What factors militate against study curriculum used in teaching?
1.6. DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
To treat the problem as a whole will be too much for the requirement of this work. Teaching topic is large with different subject which has different topics therefore, some topics were selected which is made up of the following. Animal kingdom, plant, fungi, skeleton, reproduction, parts of speech, grammar, comprehension and essay. These are characterized by some factors that have contributed to the negligence of the teaching. One of these factors is the large nature of the topic that S.S.2 was chosen which resulted in confusing them.
1.7. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The study covers the period of (2000-2010). This period has been chosen not to be demonstrating the stages of transition of identification of topic but to show the relevance of teaching topic curriculum in senior secondary school. Above all, the instrument for data collection was of the major problems uncounted by the researcher made use of secondary sources of data collection which was difficult to get because of some factors such as inadequate library material, textbooks which should have made the research work. Again, some were faced with financial problems and inadequate library materials which lead to a lot of challenge to the students.
S.S-2 TOPICS IN ENGLISH AND BIOLOGY
There are lots of topics in biology and English language to be identified. But among these topics there are some that are very important which pose problems to the student. Some of these topics are: - English language- noun phrase, pronouns, forms of verb, phrasal verb, introduction to sequence of terms, adjuncts complex sentence structure, technical and scientific writing, letter writing under this:- Apology, Appreciation an complaint, Argumentative writing, expository writing, English language registers, word relations, pronunciation and spelling, rising tone, speaking skills , vowels and consonants.
In biology, we see topic like: - production, Ecology, roles of micro organisms, viruses’ pollution, and principles of diseases. All these topics tend to satisfy any curriculum which requires identification level.
Adequate attention has been given to the most difficult topics of the scheme and the various aspects of teaching methods have been adopted. All those topics that are seems to be difficult to students help develop them both mental and physical. It helps to develop them to the environment by
1. Train the students in reading and comprehension.
2. Make them master the usage of the part of speech.
3. Increase their vocabulary and word power.
4. Train the pupils in the art of correct letter writing and composition.
5. Familiarized them with nature and scope of question.
6. Enable them have on up to date general knowledge of worlds such as location and times, other content information for instructor and teaching assistant such as textbook, assigned reading books, calculators, lab vouchers etc. In all syllables and curriculum help student identify a topic in any subject. Also the method of teaching and ability to learn will help the student and teachers to identify topic syllables and curriculum depend on the planning that precedes it. It is designed to explore how the educational goals of a subject will be achieved.