IMPROVEMENTS ON INDIGENOUS FERMENTED FOODS, PROSPECTS AND CONSTRAINTS IN IGBO ETITI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA.
Rated 5/5 based on 7,652 reviews
Enugu, Nigeria
Nigeria
Enugu State
Nigeria
09080008483
info@projectng.com
09080008483
info@projectng.com

Improvements On Indigenous Fermented Foods, Prospects And Constraints In Igbo Etiti Local Government Area.

Get the Complete Project Materials Now! »

IMPROVEMENTS ON INDIGENOUS FERMENTED FOODS, PROSPECTS  AND CONSTRAINTS IN IGBO  ETITI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA.

ABSTRACT.

 

          This is a  review on indigenous fermented foods outlining their traditional  status, improvement made towards developing them to the status of modern processed foods as well as the problems and constraints militating  against them despite such improvements. The problem inherent in the technology of the traditional family and /or ethnic method of fermenting local staples. These were found to result from the following limitations associated with different aspect of indigenous fermentation processes, thus a production environment, lack of knowledge of the culture of the processes, absence of any control in the processing variables like PH, temperature etc, lack of awareness of the  nutrition and /or toxicological implications of fermentation and its products. As a result  of improvements made in the areas of production environment, process control and microbiological quality of the product  yield a reduction in the duration of fermentation and emergence of products that are free of health -risks, consistent  quality capable of mass production through the use of mechanized equipment and sterile packages.

          The problems of indigenous fermented foods includes, poverty, illiteracy, government attitude and preference for imported foods.

 

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

          The general purpose of this study is to find out the improvements on indigenous fermented goods, the problems and constraints as it  affect the indigenous fermented foods in igbo Etiti Local Government Area.

          Specifically, The Purpose Of The Study Were To;

1.    Find out the recent scientific and technology advances made towards improving these traditional method of fermenting indigenous foods.

2.    Illustrate how their development relate to the sustained growth of the food and beverage industries in Nigeria at large

3.    Determine the impact of the improvement on the fermented foods.

4.    Find out problem of the indigenous fermented foods, and to

5.    Examine the Constraints being encountered on the traditional methods of fermentation

RESEARCH PROBLEMS;

First, Per (1999) have observed that the resources farmers in the developing countries face a variety of problems and constraints, which include and not limited to crop losses due to insects, diseases, weeded drought threaten, low fertility but also other biotic ad abiotic factor which contributes to low yields of crops. secondary, poor infrastructure and dysfunctional of access credit technical assistance.

Thirdly, lack of government assistance to send extension workers to educate the rural farmers on how they can get financial assistance on their co-operative projects.

 

SCOPE OF STUDY.

     This study is limited only to the indigenous fermented foods in Igbo Etiti Local GOVERNMENT Area of Enugu State. The reason for this Limitation is because of lack of fund and insufficient time to carryout this research in other local government areas of the state and other states in the country.

TABLE OF CONTENT

 

Title page -----------------------------------------------------------------------i

Approval Page --------------- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -ii

Dedication  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - iii

Acknowledgement - - - - - - - - - -  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -iv-v

Table of Content - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - vi

Abstract - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - -- - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -vii

Purpose of the Study - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -viii

Research Problems- - - - - - - - - - - - -  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ix

Scope of   Studies- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -------------- - - - - - - - - - - - - - x

 

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction  - - - - - - -  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  - - -  - - - - - 1-3

Scope of Improvement for Fomented Foods - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -3-5

Research questions- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -      -- - - - - - - - - - - ---------5

 

CHAPTER TWO

Literature Review - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - 6

Indigenous Fermented Food Products -----------------------------------6

Classification and Uses of Indigenous Fermented Foods - -- - - - 6-7

The Scientific and Technological Improvements on

Indigenous Fermented Foods  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -7-9

The Contributions of Improved Methods to the Fermented Foods - 9

The Advances Introduced in the Processes / Products of the Indigenous Fermented Foods  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - --  -9-10 The Impact of Fermented Food Products in the Sustenance

 of Food and Beverage Industries  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -11-12

Problems of Indigenous Fermented Foods  - - - - - - - - - - - - 12-13

Constraints of Indigenous Fermented Foods - - - - - - - - - - -- 13-15

 

CHAPTER THREE

Methodology - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -     16 

Introduction- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  - - -- - - - - -   16

Research Design - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -       16

Population - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  - - -    16

Sampling and Sampling Techniques  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -         17

Description of Instruments   - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -      17

Validation of the Research Instruments- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 18

Data Analysis Techniques - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 18

CHAPTER FOUR

Presentation and Analysis of Data - - - - -   - - - - - - - - - - -        19-28

Findings - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -         - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 29

CHAPTER FIVE

Discussion - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - -     30-32

Summary of Findings-- - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -      32-33

Conclusion- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -  - - -     33-34

Recommendation  -  --- - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - -  - - - - -        34-35

Suggestion for Further Research - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 35

References  - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- -- - - - -       36-38

Appendix I - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - - -    39

Appendix II - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - -   40-41

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

     Chemical Changes brought about by enzymes from living microorganisms constitute fermentation. It has been established that there are nutrient rich cross in Nigeria which are fermented and used as food or food condiments (Odunfa and Oyeyiola),1985, (Uzogara), 1990. Fermentation leads to general improvements in the self life, texture, taste, aroma as well as nutritional value (Uzo gara), 1990.

     The indigenous fermented foods constitute a group of foods that are produced in homes, villages, ad small cottage industries. They are sold to the rural populace who buy them for food and social ceremonies. The fermented foods are derived from substrates like roots, Legumes, Cereals, oil seeds, nuts milk, palm tree sap etc. (Oguntunde), 1989, (Akobundu and Iwuoha), 1992. Generally, these crops are not used as foods in their unfermented State because some of them are toxic or contain anti-nutrientional factors.

     In the distant past there was no verified date on the economic, nutritional, technical and quality control implications of the indigenous fermented foods. Only recently have food technologist, human nutritionist, Microbiologists and other applied scientists carried out multifaceted studies on indigenous  fermented foods so that  further development could be achieved. These led to application of biotechnology processes in selected indigenous fermented foods  but it is strange that the commercial biotechnology sectors has shown limited interest in applying modern biotechnology to the problems of security and poverty in developing countries. The commercial firm would find it hard to recoup their investments (Gabrille, 1999). Despite these advances on indigenous fermented foods, there are a lot of constraints / problems militating against them (indigenous fermented foods) which has hindered the implementation of such findings.

     Fermentation has been used for several thousands of years as   an effective and low cost means to preserve the quality and safety of foods. (Camp bell –Plat,1996) Stated that fermentation is the oldest known of food biotechnology. Food fermentation involves mixed culture of microorganisms that grows simultaneous or in succession. According to Stainkerus (1995) the traditional fermented foods contain high nutritive value.  Food fermentation is important in developing countries where lack of resources limits the use of technique such as vitamins enrichment of foods and the use of energy and intensive process for food preservation. Some important indigenous fermented foods in Igbo Etiti Local Government Area are cereals:- (burukuku, kunu and pap), Legumes:- (Ugba or dawada, ogiri isi), Tubers:-- (Abacha, Fufu or Utara akpu, gari, Ekwurikwu, cassava flour), Tree Sap:-(Palm wine). In Igbo Etiti Local Government area, women carry out fermented processing activities mostly. The production is Craft-based despite the dawn of science and technology .

The techniques they use are labour intensive time consuming and have low productivities, with success depending upon observation of good manufacturing practice. According to IDRC (2003) vitamin A, Iron and deficiency resulting from poor processing by rural or local farmers is widely prevalent particularly in the developing world. The world  health organization (WHO) estimate that as many as 228 million children are  affected by vitamin A. The report further show that iodine deficiency (IDD) even when mild reduces intelligence quotient by 10-15 points. The WHO reports identified iron deficiency  as the most common nutritional disorder in the world and over one billion people, particularly women of reproductive age and pre-school children and working men. If not controlled, it leads to anemia, reduced work capacity, diminished learning ability and increased susceptibility to learning ability and increased susceptibility to infection and great risk of death associated with pregnancy and child birth. All these added to low wages and increasing poverty, high price of foods of animal origin accompanied with increasing population presents a frightening scenario in developing world.

     The need  to achieve food security for the growing population calls for the adaptation of improved method of food fermentation. Food security remains on unfulfilled dream  from more than 800 million people unable to leave healthy and active lives because they lack access to safe and nutrious food   Klaus, (1999). The fight to achieve food security for the growing population has to take place one  many fronts. Technology is one of such front and genetic engineering and biotechnology are interdependent options within that front. Biotechnology clearly can solve agricultural problem that traditional technology and others can not solve or can solve in a more costly manner (Klaus, 1999). Recent development in genetics enzymology, recombination technology and fermentation technology have led to advances in technology far beyond the original traditional and scope (BOSTID, 1992).

 

SCOPE OF IMPROVEMENT FOR FERMENTED FOODS

     Indigenous fermented foods are produced at the household level in a majority of African countries. Increasing industrialization and urbanization trends in these countries will however dictate the needs for large scale production of fermented foods of consistent quality to meet the demands of the sophisticated and varied palates of industrialized communities will eventually be required. Upgrading the production of fermented foods from the household to the industrial level will necessitate several critical

Steps:

1.    Isolation and identification of the micro organism associated with the fermentation. The micro organism. associated with fermentation need to be isolated, property identified and preserved preferably in a recognized culture collection for future use.

2.    Determination of the roles of the microorganisms :- The biochemical roles of the microorganisms associated with food fermentation needs to be determined through chemical analysis of products released by the micro organism under controlled laboratory conditions.

3.    Selection and genetic improvement of micro organisms.:- Microorganisms responsible for affecting important changes in the food during fermentation should be selected subjected to genetic improvement geared towards maximizing desirably quality attributes in the food and limit any undesirable attributes.

4.    Improvement  in process controls for the manufacture of fermented foods:- Improvement in the  quality of fermented foods may be achieved by  manipulating environmental factors such as temperature, moisture content, aereation, PH, acidity etc and  activity of micro organisms during the fermentation process.

5.    Improvement in the quality of raw materials used in the production of fermented foods.:- Both the quality and quantity of fermented foods may be improved by choosing raw materials other than those traditionally used for their production.

6.    Laboratory Simulation of the fermented foods.:- Prior to pilot scale production and (Ideally) after all the five stages above have been studied, fermented  products,  may be produced under laboratory conditions:- . Laboratory simulation of fermented foods will involve the production of  fermented food by inoculating microblal isolate having desirable properties into raw materials.

7.    Pilot Stage production.; The pilot stage production is the first departure from small scale production and should be based on the result of laboratory experiment.

8.    Production or industrial plant stage:- The production stage is the combination of all the efforts and should lead to the availability of foods of predictable and consistent quality or a large scale.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.    What is the scientific / technological improvements made so far on indigenous fermented foods in Igbo Etiti Local Government area.

2.    How did the improvements contribute to the qualities of the fermented foods.?

3.    What are the advances introduced in the process / production of the indigenous fermented foods.?

4.    Did the improvement have any impact in the substance of food and beverage industries?

5.    What are the problems associated with the improvements on the traditional methods?

6.    What are the constraints of the indigenous fermented foods.?

 

 

 

 

 

 

Download Improvements On Indigenous Fermented Foods, Prospects And Constraints In Igbo Etiti Local Government Area. Research Materials

Share On Social

PROJECT DETAILS

Project ID ED674
Price N3000

RELATED TOPICS

The Extent Of Use Of Instructional Materials For Effective Teaching - Learning Of English Language And Integrated Science In Junior Secondary School In Enugu Urban, Enugu State. The Effect Of Continuous Assessment On Academic Performance Of Students In Home Economic In Secondary Schools At Fegge In Onitsha South Local Government Area Of Anambra State. Impact Of Language Laboratory For Effective Teaching And Learning Of Oral English In Junior Secondary School (a Case Study Of Enugu North Local Government Area) Relationship Between Students Academic Achievement In Junior Secondary School Certificate Examination In English Langues And Integrated Science From 2006 To 2009. (a Case Study In Udi Local Government Area Enugu State) Principal Perception Of Causes And Implication Of Laxity And Indolence Among Science Teachers On Academic Performance Of Secondary School Students In Enugu Educational Zone. Enugu State Relative Academic Performance Of Junior Seconadary School Student In Integrated Science And Introductory Technology In Junior Jssce From 2002-2006 (a Case Study Of Enugu Education Zone Enugu State) Consumer’s Protection Causes And Solutions Of Examination Malpractice In Enugu State College Of Education (technical) Enugu Extent Of Use Of Instructional Materials In Effective Teaching/learning Of Computer Science In Junior Secondary Schools In Enugu Education Zone, Enugu State. The Trends In Students Performance In Junior Certificate Examination In English Language And Integrated Science Enugu North Local Government Area, Enugu State.
Conveysms

Conveysms

Conveysms