EVALUATION OF GUINNESS ADVERTISING JINGLES AND SLOGANEERING CAMPAIGN ON THE CONSUMERS’ BUYING BEHAVIOR IN ENUGU METROPOLIS
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Evaluation Of Guinness Advertising Jingles And Sloganeering Campaign On The Consumers’ Buying Behavior In Enugu Metropolis

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EVALUATION OF GUINNESS ADVERTISING JINGLES AND        SLOGANEERING CAMPAIGN ON THE CONSUMERS’ BUYING    BEHAVIOR IN ENUGU METROPOLIS

                                     ABSTRACT

This study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of Guinness advertising jingles and sloganeering campaign on consumers’ buying behavior in Enugu metropolis. The researcher stated the major problem that prompted her to embark on the study. Relevant literatures concerning the study were reviewed from both primary and secondary sources. The researcher used a sample size of 400 which was drawn from the population of 722,664 using Taro Yamane formula. In addition, the use of simple percentages was adopted to analyze the data generated from the study. The researcher also used chi- square (x2) goodness fit in testing the hypotheses. Consequently, it was found that Guinness malt slogan “love at first sip” influence consumers’ buying behavior of Guinness malt. In all, the researcher recommended that Guinness should re-design their advert jingles and slogans in a way that motivate their audience behavior. Such enhancement should also place the product in high quality and acceptable to their teeming target consumers.

 

                  TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page

Approval page

Dedication

Abstract

Acknowledgement

Table of contents

List of table

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1          Background of the Study…………………………………………………1

1.2          Statement of the Research Problem……………………………………3

1.3          Objectives of the Study……………………………………………………….4

1.4          Significance of the Study……………………………………………………5

1.5          Research Questions………………………………………………………….5

1.6          Research Hypotheses……………………………………………………….6

1.7          Theoretical Framework…………………………………………………..7

1.8          Scope of the Study…………………………………………………………..11

1.9         Limitations of the Study…………………………………………………11

1.10    Definition of Terms…………………………………………………….12

References ……………………………………………………………..14

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Sources of Literature Review …………………………………………15

2.2 Review of Relevant Literature ………………………………..15

2.3 Summary of Literature ……………………………………………29

References ……………………………………………………………..31

CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research Method ……………………………………………………..33

3.2 Research Design ………………………………………………………..33

3.3 Area of Study……………………………………………………………….34

3.4 Population of Study ……………………………………………………34

3.5 Research Sample…………………………………………………………34

3.6 Sampling Technique………………………………………………………36

3.7 Instrument of Data Collection……………………………………………36

3.8 Method of Data Collection …………………………………………………36

3.9 Method of Data Analysis……………………………………………………37

3.10 Expected Results …………………………………………………………..38

             References………………………………………………………………….39

CHAPTER FOUR: PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION S OF DATA

4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis………………………………………40

4.2 Test of Hypotheses ……………………………….................................46

4.3 Discussion of Results…………………………………………………….50

 

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Summary …………………………………………………………..53

5.2 Conclusion ……………………………………………………………54

5.3 Recommendations……………………………………………….55

Bibliography…………………………………………………………….56

Appendix I………………………………………………………………….59

Appendix II ……………………………………………………………….60

  

 

 

                       LIST OF TABLE

Table 4:1 Distribution of Questionnaire…………………………………34

Table 4: 2: Analysis of Marital Status……………………………………34

4:3: Educational Qualifications…………………………………………35

4:4: Age of Respondents ………………………………………………35

4:5: Do advertising Jingles and Slogans Play a role in influencing Consumer buying  behavior of Guinness malt? ………………………36

4:6: How adequate are the music tune and message incorporated in the advertising Jingle Slogans of Guinness Nigeria Plc in promoting Guinness s malt ………………………36

4: 7 Does Guinness Nigeria Plc live up to expectation of what is promised in its advertising Jingles and slogans for Guinness

Malt? ……………………………………37

4.8  Is there any significant relationship between the media type and effectiveness of advertising and Jingles and slogans ……………37

 

CHAPTER ONE

                                  Introduction

1.1          Background  of the Study

Advertising business is a form of marking communication used to encourage, persuade or manipulate an audience (viewers, readers, or listeners; sometimes a specific group to take or continue to take some action, (Allens, 2009, p.12). Most commonly, the desired results is to drive consumer behavior with respect to a commercial offering.

Advertising jingles and slogans are at the front of delivering the proper message to customers and prospective customers. The purpose of advertising jingles and slogans according to Bell and Cassidy (2012, p.76) is to convince customers that a company’s services are the best, enhance the image of the company, point out and create a need for products or services demonstrated new uses for established products and programmers, reinforce the sales people’s individual messages, draw customers to the business and to hold existing customers. The essence is to effect consumer buying behavior.


 

 

An advertising slogan is a catchy phrase or series of words used to help consumers remember a company, brand or product (Calvert 2009, p.12). For instance, the advertising slogan used by cuisines malt is “love at first sip” while on the other hand, advertising jingle is a short tune used in advertising and for other commercial use. The jingles contain one or more hooks and meaning that explicitly promote the product being advertised, usually through the use of one or more advertising slogans. Advertising buyers use jingles in radio and television commercials; they can also be used in non- advertising contexts to establish or maintain a brand image. Jingles are form of sound branding. Companies create advertising slogans and jingles to use in various marketing efforts in the hope that phrases and music will stick in people’s mind.

That way, when a consumer needs a product or services offered by a variety of companies, that consumer will choose the product or service that is top- of – mind from slogans recognition .

Jingles are similar to slogans in that they are catchy and used to associate a specific company, product or brand. Jingles tent to be musical, though, where as slogans do not need to be accompanied by music (Cook, 20011: 72). However, slogans can become jingles; slogans that is sung, is a jingle.  Guinness malt’s “love at first sip” slogan often is sung in the company’s commercials, marking it a jingle as well.

Most commonly, the desire to use advertising slogans and jingles are to drive consumer behaviors with respect to a commercial offering, although political and ideological advertising is also common. The purpose may also be to reassure employees or shareholders that a company is viable or successful.

Gills (2007) noted that commercial advertisers who used ad a slogans and jingles often seek to generate an increased consumption of their products or services though “branding” which involves the repetition of an image or product name in an effort to associate certain qualities with the brand in the minds of consumers. Therefore, the essence of advertising slogans and jingles is to influence consumer behaviour. It is based on this premise that this project work evaluates advertising jingles and sloganeering campaign on consumers’ buying habit.

1.2          Statement of the Problem

Advertising jingles and slogans are two aspects of advertising that go to some extent in influencing consumer buying habit. However, the inadequacy in the construction of the appropriate message or music tune in ad slogan and jingles may end up influencing consumer buying habit negatively. This is due to the fact that slogans for instance are often retained in memories but once they are not appealing to the mind as they relate to the products being promoted, it may not have the influence on consumer buying habit.

Much emphasis is  laid on the caliber of message or music being carried by the Guinness Nigeria Plc that use ad slogans and jingles, yet failed  to live up to expectation of what is promised in the advertisement . For instance, in the case of   Guinness malt whose slogan is “love at first sip”, most times the first sip of such drinks is disgusting due to certain factors which the company failed to take into consideration before selling its products to the public.

          The inappropriate selection of the media in reaching the target customers can affect the role of advertising jingles and slogans in achieving its purpose for the company or organization.

1.3          Objectives of the Study  

The broad objective of this project work is to evaluate advertising jingles and sloganeering campaign on consumer buying behavior.

The specific objectives include the following:

1.    To determine the role of advertising jingles and slogans in influencing consumer buying behavior of Guinness malt.

2.    To determine the adequacy of the music tune and message incorporated in the advertising jingles and slogans of Guinness malt.

3.    To investigate whether Guinness Nigeria Plc live up to expectations of what is promised in its advertising jingles and slogans for Guinness malt.

4.    To determine the relationship existing between the media types and effectiveness.

1.4          Significance of the Study

      This project work will be of immense significance to the management and staff of Guinness Nigeria Plc. It will go to extent to enlighten them on the concept of advertising jingles and slogans as well as their role in promoting products and influencing consumer’s behavior.  

Students and other researchers will widen their scope in the information contained in this project work.

1.5          Researcher Questions

The following research questions are formulated for the purpose of this project work:

1.    Do advertising jingles and slogans play any role in influencing consumer buying behavior of Guinness malt?

2.    How adequate are the music and message incorporated in the advertising jingles and slogans of Guinness Nigeria Plc in promoting Guinness malt?

3.    Does Guinness Nigeria Plc live up to expectations of what is promised in its advertising jingles and slogans for Guinness malt?

4.    Is there any significant relationship existing between media and effectiveness of advertising jingles and slogans?

1.6          Research Hypotheses

A hypothesis is a prediction of relationship between one or more factors and the problem under study that can be tested (Anyianuka et al, 2010, p.2). The researcher formulated the following hypotheses:

H1: Advertising jingles and slogans play roles in influencing consumer buying behavior of Guinness malt.

H0: Advertising jingles and slogans play roles in influencing consumer buying behavior of Guinness malt.

H2:  The music tune and message incorporated in the advertising jingle and slogans of   Guinness Nigeria Plc in promoting Guinness malt is adequate.

 

H0:  The music tune and message incorporated in the advertising jingle and slogans of   Guinness Nigeria Plc in promoting Guinness malt is not adequate.

H3: Guinness Nigeria Plc lives up to expectation of what is promised in its advertising jingle and slogans for cuisines malt.

Ho: Guinness Nigeria Plc does not live up to expectation of what is promised in its advertising jingle and slogans for Guinness malt.

H4: A significant relationship exists between the media type and effectiveness of advertising jingles and slogans.

Ho: A significant relationship does not exist between the media type and effectiveness of advertising jingle and slogans.

1.7          Theoretical Framework

The theoretical framework of this study is based on the hierarchy of effects model.

Among other advertising theories, the hierarchy of effects model is predominant. It shows clear steps of how advertising works. The hierarchy of effects model was formulated by Robert Lavidge and Gary Steiner in 1961. The theory is a six – step hierarchical framework that proposes that sales people had a mission to attract attention, and further maintain interest and desire in order to be successful.

Hierarchy of effects model can be explained with the help of a pyramid. First, the lower level of objectives, such as awareness, knowledge or comprehension is accomplished. Subsequent objectives may focus on moving prospects to higher levels in the pyramid to provoke desired behavioral responses such as associating feelings with the brand, trial, or regular use, etc. It is easier to accomplish advertising pyramid than the ones towards the top. The percentage of prospective customers will decline as they move up the pyramid towards more action oriented objectives, such as regular brand use.

               Hierarchy of Effects Model         

 

            Awareness

 

 

 

         

 

 

        Knowledge

 

                                                  

 

            Liking

                  

 

      Purchase

      Conviction

 

     Performance                   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

It clarifies the objectives of an advertising campaign and for each individual advertisement. The model suggests that there are six steps a consumer or a business buying moves through when making a purchase. The steps are:

Awareness: If most of the audience is unaware of the object, the communicator’s task is to build awareness, perhaps just name recognition, with simple message repeating the products name, customer must become aware of the brand. This is not as straight forward as it seems. Capturing someone’s attention does not mean they will notice the brand name. Thus, the brand name needs to be made focal to get consumers to become aware. Magazines are full of ads that will capture your attention, but you will have trouble easily seeing the brand name.

Knowledge: The target audience might have product awareness but not know much more; hence this stage involves creating brand knowledge. This is where comprehension of the brand and what it stands for become important

Liking: If the audience looks unfavorably towards the product, the communicator has to find out why. If the unfavorable view is based on real problems, a communication campaign alone cannot do the job. For product problem, it is necessary to first fix the problem and only then can you communicate its renewed quality.

Preference: The target audience might like the product but prefer it to others. In this case, the communicator must try to build consumer preference by promoting quality, value, performance and other features. The communicator can check the campaigns success by measuring audience preference before and after the campaign.

Conviction: A target audience might prefer a particular product but not develop conviction about it the communicator’s job is build conviction among the target audiences.

Purchase: Finally, some members of the target audience might have conviction but not get around to making the purchase. They may wait for more information or plan to act later. The communicator must need this consumer to take the final step, perhaps by offering the product at a low price, offering a premium, or letting consumers tried out. This is where consumer or purchase. Thus advertising is thought to work and follow a certain sequence whereby the prospect is moved through a series of stages in succession from unawareness to the purchase of the product.

 

 

 

 

 

     Liking

Performance          think     Think

   Purchase          Do

 Conviction               Feel

    

 

 

 

 

Awareness

Knowledge

 

 

 

 

         Source: www. learnmarking.com

1.8          Scope of Study

This project study on advertising jingles and sloganeering campaign on consumer buying behavior is focused on Guinness malt which is produced and marketed by Guinness Nigeria Plc.

 

1.9          Limitation of the Study

The researcher lacked enough funds to carry out this research project, thereby leading to a slight decay in the successful completion of this research work.

The researcher as well had difficulty gathering the materials which made the process of carrying out this research project a bit difficult.

Finally, the respondents were not really cooperative to the researcher due to fear of leaking their secret to competitors.

1.10    Definition of Terms (Conceptual & Operations)

Conceptual Definitions

Evaluation: forming an opinion of the amount value or quality of something after thinking about it carefully.

Advertising Jingle: This is an advertising tool in which memorable lyrics are combined with a catchy tune to create an emotional connection between your product and potential customers.

Advertising Slogans: An advertising slogan is a catchy phrase or series of words used to help consumers remember a company, brand or product.

Campaign: A series of planned activities that are intended to achieve a particular social, commercial or political aim.

Consumer: A person who buys goods or use services.

Buying Behaviors: This is the study of individuals, groups, or organizations and the process they use to select, secure, and dispose of products, service, experiences, or ideas to satisfy needs and the impacts that these processes have on the consumer and society.


 

Operational Definitions

Evaluation: Forming an opinion of the amount, value or quality of Guinness Nigeria Plc advertising Jingles and Slogan and their effects on consumer.

Advertising Jingle: Advertising jingle is a short tune used in advertising and for other commercial used to influence consumer behavior.

Campaign: A series of planned activities that is intended to win more customers for Guinness Nigeria Plc while retaining the old ones.

Consumer: This is operational zed as a person who buys Guinness malt.

Buying Behaviors: This is operationally defined as the diverse attitude exhibited by consumer in the purchase of goods and service.

 

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