DEPENDENCY AND UNDERDEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA
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Enugu, Nigeria
Nigeria
Enugu State
Nigeria

Dependency And Underdevelopment In Africa

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DEPENDENCY AND UNDERDEVELOPMENT IN AFRICA
Abstract
Dependency and underdevelopment in Africa is our main thrust which we try to relate the above to the Nigerian context. Dependency as we all know is a product of underdevelopment which is prevalent in Africa in general and Nigeria in particular. It is certain that Nigeria is an independent nation, but it does not reflect in all the facts in the society since the super structures that form the society and state are dependent on foreign policy and factors.
As we can see in this research work, we observe how the African state started its journey to underdevelopment which came in disguised of development and missionary activities which currently left it in shambles and dependent on foreign influence, since we were colonized and gives independence, literally we are independent but practically we are dependent on foreign influence since they form most of our policy and
decisions as seen in some of our super structures like political which we adopted their style of government, economic which capitalism has contributed in crippling our economic culture which has been influenced by foreigners and degraded our cultural value, social which brought about the current inferiority complex suffered by Africans whenever they come in contact with the white.
Also more emphasis is also laid on the post colonial and pre colonial African economy as we see how the post-colonial African economy led to the current debt crisis incurred by Africa in general and Nigeria in particular and we also see how Nigeria has been subjected to unealthying conditionalities in its quest for foreign aid which does not translate the reason for its request after it is been given rather public officers now use these foreign loan for their private use thereby putting Nigeria in a higher debt profile, and in order to mediate the debt problem an organization was set up called the
international monetary fund (IMF) which is an agency of the United Nation which claims that its reason for existence is to aid the third world countries in advancing the structural adjustment programs (SAP) aimed at developing the African country to international standard, but in the real sense, it worsened the African economic problem by cursing Africa rather curning Africa from its economic slanbles.
This research work is divided into five (5) chapters for proper understanding and clarification on the nature of Dependency and underdevelopment in Africa with particular reference to Nigeria.
In chapter one (1) we look at the technicalities involved in writing a research work, and we look at the introduction of our main thrust of study or to pie which has to do with dependency and underdevelopment in Africa. Chapter two (2) we see how dependency and underdevelopment came about in Africa starting from the
advent of the colonial masters, prior motive and missions and their later motive which reflects the current economic conditions in Africa and Nigeria. This chapter also talks about the processes and stages African passed through ranging from slavery, colonialism and the existence of economic saboteurs who amplified the African resources for their own selfish reasons. Chapter three (3) talks about foreign aid as a tool used by the foreign policy or international organs to underdeveloped Africa as they make use of attractive donations to procure political and economic favours in the recipients country. This chapter also portrays the nature of the African economy as a dependent economy suffering from colonial impact, the conditions attached with foreign aid and how it fosters slavery or imperialism and the level of mismanagement and misapplication of funds by public office holders in Africa. In chapter four (4) we devise a strategy or couple of strategies for curbing dependency
and underdevelopment as we look at some of the strategies below; like the strategy of indigenization which states that indigenous enterprise should be promoted to foster independent economic development, the strategy of war against corruption, which is a tool for removing the stigma with highest infections in the Africa economy which is corruption and the strategy of neoliberalism and lastly but not the least in chapter (5) which some the whole research work up we see how we put all the stories in few sentences which is summary and we conclude based on the facts gotten and then we make recommendations on appropriate policies to be made.
Table of Contents
Title Page----------------------------------------------------i
Approval Page-----------------------------------------------ii
Dedication------------------------------------------------iii-iv
Acknowledgement----------------------------------------v-ix
Abstract--------------------------------------------------x-xiv
Table of Contents-------------------------------------xv-xvii
Chapter One: General Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study---------------------------1 -3
1.2 Statement of the Problem---------------------------3-6
1.3 Objective of the Study----------------------------------6
1.4 Literature Review ------------------------------------7-23
1.5 Significance of the Study---------------------------23-24
1.6 Theoretical Framework-----------------------------24-34
1.7 Hypotheses-----------------------------------------------34
1.8 Methods of Data collection and Analysis------------35
1.9 Scope and Limitations of the Study-------------------35
1.10 Operationalization of Concepts------------------36-37
Chapter Two: Background of Dependency and Underdevelopment in Africa
2.1 The slavery Era in Africa-------------------------38-51
2.2 The Colonial Process------------------------------52-60
2.3 The predominant existence of Compradors-----61-68
Chapter Three: Foreign Aid and Underdevelopment
3.1 The Nature of Africa Economy-------------------69-80
3.2. Foreign Aid Conditionalites ---------------------81-88
3.3 Prevalence of mismanagement and miss application
of funds in Africa-----------------------------------88-90
Chapter Four: Strategy for Curbing Dependency and Underdevelopment
4.1 The Strategy for Indigenization-------------------92-98
4.2 The Strategy for War against Corruption--------98-103
4.3 The strategy for Neoliberal Reform--------------103-107
Chapter Five: Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
5.1 Summary----------------------------------108-110
5.2 Conclusion--------------------------------110-111
5.3. Recommendations-----------------------112-113
Bibliography-----------------------------114-116
Chapter One: General Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study
The concept of dependency and underdevelopment draws our attention to the stagnation, deplorable and peripheral condition of Africa, Asia, Latin America, in the international system. Africa, among other continents in the world, is seen as the poorest continent of the world. In the international system, the G8 (Group of eight) and other international organizations regard Africa states as “POOR” thereby seeing Africa as an incapable or handicapped continent.
The reason becomes why they give out loans to most African states in order to attain the international standard of development, thereby making Africa indebted to the European countries. It is also for the same reason most international organization are established, towards the development of Africa states. Development of most
African states here implies meeting up with the European standard. Taking a look at Africa, it is seen that the problem of underdevelopment in Africa, centers on their inability to transform their raw materials to finished products, as well as their inability to properly manage and harness their products management and good leadership. The African continent is presently facing a unique and unprecedented crisis or problems in its history as a human society. These problems also transcends previous calculations of socio-economic background, balance of payment deficit, poor health statistics, material poverty indebtedness, poor education, disorganizing ethnic welfare, rapid capital flight, alleged law capacity utilization of materials and other human resources and so on. The above listed problems are what makes Africa dependent and underdeveloped, as a result of its incapability to overcome these problems or tackle them successfully. This study attempts to explore the
dimensions of dependency and underdevelopment and access the impact of Africa using Nigeria as a reference point.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
In this analysis, we shall explore into the most of the problems Africa, and Nigeria, in particular is faced with and as the analysis goes further, we shall understand the reason for this underdevelopment, and try to sort out possible solutions to go into that, it is paramount to point out factors necessitating the phenomenon of underdevelopment and dependency in Africa, such as;
i. The reckless and excess lust for foreign loan and aid: This has to do with a financial assistance granted to third world country in order to boost their economy and project them capable for international trade.
ii. The domination of import over export trade: This is one of the major problems in Africa, or third world countries economy, since they tend to patronize more of the foreign goods over indigenous goods thereby bringing the implication of exploitation from the foreigners at the detriment of indigenous traders.
iii. Political Crisis and Corruption: Africa is conversant with the above, since it is married with different kind of political crisis ranging from military coups to party crisis and worst of all which is corruption since it is the end products of any political unstable nation.
iv. The failure of policies made by the government: Since policies made cannot be strictly adhered to them the problems in which that policy was made for has not yet been satisfied or settled, and in most cases these
policies made are irrelevant to the countries or nations development agenda.
v. Lastly but not the least poor education: Here the level of education which is the key to every kind of success is too low and a times poor, in third world countries the education, sector is dominated with all manner of malpractices which includes bribery, strikes, indefinite closure of school, due to illegality in its operations, unaccredited academic structures and all other shortcomings etc.
Against this backdrop, this study attempts to provide answers to the following questions,
i. Is there a link between dependency and underdevelopment in Africa?
ii. Is foreign aid responsible for Africa’s underdevelopment?
iii. Is accountability and transparent leadership capable of endangering sustainable development in Nigeria?
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The broad objective of this study is to interrogate the link between dependency and underdevelopment in Nigeria, especially the study is aimed at;
i. Establishing the link between dependency and underdevelopment in Africa
ii. Ascertaining that foreign aid is responsible for underdevelopment in Africa
iii. Determining if accountability and transparent leadership are capable of engendering development in Nigeria.
1.4 Literature Review
The term underdevelopment is used in the social sciences to refer to certain areas of the world; it gained prominence in the late 1940’s. Prior to this time, other derogatory terms has been used to quality and describe these areas as meier has noted, in the 18th century, such terms as “rude” and barbarous were used to describe countries in Asia, Africa and Latin America. In the 19th century, those terms were dropped in favour of new terms such as “backward” and primitive”. In the 20th century, especially after the end of world war if the previous terms were equally abandoned in their places, new terms such as “underdevelopment” and “developing” were used.
At the inoment, it has been suggested in some quarters that such tenures as “less developed”, “developing”, “poor”, and emergent countries should used instead of underdeveloped countries. The reason for this
suggestion as spotlighted by Walter Rodney, “is to avoid any unpleasantness which may be attached to it” and which may be interpreted as including such physical deformities as mental and moral underdevelopment.
It is also been suggested that the previous derogatory terms should be dropped in favour of less offensive or mild ones such as “developing” or emergent. This is perceived as a calculated design or ploy by the west to mask or common flag economic stagnation and exploration exists in underdeveloped areas. It is contended for instance that the application of such terms as “developing” instead of underdeveloped gives an erroneous impression, that these countries are changing positively and thus are developing and that if the right policies are implemented, sooner or later these countries will definitely catch up with the developed countries of the world.
In view of this assumption, the Marxist Theorist prefer to use the term “underdevelopment” to describe the less developed parts of the world. The reason for this is that the term “underdevelopment” is believed to be best concept that can apply describe the state of stagnation and exploitation that is prevalent in these societies. We now shall examine the meaning of the concept of underdevelopment.

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