Effect Of Competence And Penvironmental Management In Nigeria: A Case Study Of Enugu State Waste Management Authority (eswama)erformance In Second Language Learning

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ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN NIGERIA: A CASE STUDY OF ENUGU STATE WASTE MANAGEMENT AUTHORITY (ESWAMA)

  typifies in Nigeria cities by open mountain high dumps of refuse which in addition to their delectenous health affect also narrow or completely block road ways and other right of way. Such refuse heaps are so common in Nigeria cities that they can now be considered national features of Nigeria cities. Liquid waste problem are typified in the clogging of gutters and other drainage systems by liquid waste including human waste. These are caused by inadequate liquid waste disposal faculties and blocking by the relevant channels by objects thrown or deposited by people. I would seen that this phenomenon of unsanitary urban conditions is not unique to Nigeria current stage of urban conditions is not unique to Nigeria current stage of urban development.

Administration machinery Background to the Establishment of ESWAMA.

There was nation wide campaign to rid the nation free of waste past regime neglected this aspect in all part of urban centres. In the country no effort by relevant authorities the Local government urban councils  and health ministers to channel their effort towards the areas that has to do with our health. Most of this bodies felt they were over burdened with so many responsibilities by both state and federal constitution stipulations  federal constitution indicate that there is need to establish the third tier of government which fortunately Enugu North Local government operate.

These local government look after the environment should  education market  and all local course workers financial allocation does not in any way grantee or into carrying out these various assignment based on these the aspect of environment management suffer so much on the side of health ministry. It was not able to carrying it responsibility based on the fact that it lacked fund.

Other ministries the work, housing and environment suffered funding problems. All these made it impossible for the authorities assigned with environment management to make meaningful impact toward the end with these points then federal government under general Mohammed Buhari fund it necessary in 1984 that effort should be made to be made to aid our environment out of directives, various state government established task force on environment sanitation was then military government of Anambra State Navy Captain Aleson Amachina Madiweke. By the time it had huge responsibilities which include road for construction and maintenance, drainage clearing etc with these huge responsibilities the aspect of environmental management cannot be achieved effectively on housing aspect the task force was changed with the responsibility of recovering all government house still occupied by returned civil servants and non-Civil servant politicians alike which was a problem caused by the last civilian administration on vehicle the task force was asked to recover all government vehicle acquired by politician and brought with government money but still in the hands of individuals who brought with government money but still in the hands of individuals who held them for they own personal use. The task force after careful study of its aims and objectives mapped its strategy and moved into action on 30th march 1984. Enugu happens to be the seat of the government and as a matter of priority, it has to be given preference in the somedy task force declared clean of junks drainages channel and clearing of refuse dumped in open storms, drains that caused flood situation the task force went into the city to structures threading to convey clear horrible in the city scope of slum. It becomes a routine for last Saturday of the month to be observed as clearing day. As one may have observed entire out put from the ward go seemed military sense military is after all not expected to make laws the jobs of the task force was therefore adhoc. It was adhoc because it loss subjected of the ships and caprices of the military governor. Task force in a bid to carrying their job effectively designated certain point in the city scope refuse dumps. It must be recalled that the clean up. Exercise was not by appeal and persecution by what they formed military force.

It is not record that between march and December 1984, the task force collected about 650 thousand tons of refuse in Enugu alone. This was by far below what was expected  but the reason is not far fetched Enugu was the capital of Anambra State and made up of mainly clean environment but the situation would have seen different face if the former regime paid attention to it. It is also one record that one civilian government said that he was not elected to carry refuse.

On 30th August 1984 the task force moved to Onitsha with similar outfit between August and December 1984, the task force recorded 1.3 million tons at Onitsha and on 30th March 1985, the task force moved to Nsukka and in April of the same year they moved in to ABAKALIKI All these moves were towards restoring these urban centres from deteriorating by December 1985 the task force was in Awka and Nnewi. As the operation were going on in July 1985 the government started exploring ways and means of consolidating the gains of the task force. After several meeting and consultation with experts in the filed, the Anambra State environment sanitation authority was born with untied edict from the inception of Anambra State government removed aspect of hosing works and vehicle and this left the authorities with the aspect of environment sanitation. After the creation of Enugu State it was renamed  ENSPA but now ESWAMA which came on board YN.8 Edict 2004.

Background of the establishment of ESWAMA the Enugu state established by virtue of the Enugu state Law No. 8. of 2004 to collect, dispose and treat all environmental waste as well as ensure sustainable environmental cleanliness in the state.

Function of ESWAMA include.

i.             To collect remove process, treat and safely dispose of domestic hospital commercial institutional and industrial waste recycle waste and industrial design blue prints for poor sewage disposal method.

ii.            To ensure sustainability in the entire process of waste management in the state.

iii.          To create wealth from waste and alleviate poverty.

iv.          To organize and supervise the conduct of the state wide monthly sanitation exercise in every last Saturday of the month.

Frame Work for the  executive of function:

EWAMA like other forms of governmental agencies has a way of managing its resources in order to ensure efficiency in work delivery it has an organization structure that sees on how to carrying their functions. The nature and scope of the function depends on the number of factors it depends on the values and the immediate need of the urban areas of city aesthetics achieve this using some techniques to ensure good relationship of social economic and other consideration to long range comprehensive development of clean. Environment which is the target of the sanitation authority.

Staffing structure of ESWAMA.

There are one thousand workers in the ESWAMA since its inception in great variety of tasks the administrative group has 150 staff which provide the administration and clerical services that tend to dominate the central departments of the authority Break down of the workers strength shows that Enugu above has the headquarters and Zonal office at Agbani has 250 staff but of the total workers employed (see table 1)

TABLE 1: DISTRIBUTION OF WORKERS IN URBAN CENTRES WHERE ESWAMA APPLIES

TOWN

NUMBER OF WORKERS

Nsukka

400

Oji River

250

Awgu

230

Udi

300

Ezeagu

250

Agbani

250

Source: Field Work 2013

There are 200 senior staff of the technical and different profession like management journalism, accounting etc. these group of people are simply referred to as the management staff because of their attainment in education and experience. They are expected to have attained certain level of education. They are referred to have management staff of differentiate them from what they termed ordinary staff (see table2).

TABLE 2: DISTRIBUTION OF SENIOR AND JUNIOR WORKERS

Position

Senior/Junior

Number

Technical Prof

Senior

200

Staff ordinary

Junior

800

Total staff

 

1000

Source: Field Work, 2013. 

 800 staff of ESWAMA are what they referred to as ordinary personnel staff whose jobs ranges from refuse disposal sweeping of streets, clearing of the environment landscape, planning nursery, driving to clerical work, for some aspect of the work being undertaken by ESWAMA particular training is required ordinarily to some of the staff are expected to meet clerical work and revenue collection to divers whose jobs are technical and require skill are pre-requiste. These sets must have primary school certificate to enable them read and know road signs.

 

Critique

The result of this is that sanitation authority staff tends to be move at home under a patronage system rather than a merit and result orientated system.

Well meaning action and directives of the chief executive are first and foremost received and weighed in these squinted to eyes through or prevent directives. Such staff of course observes summary action, based to surveying institution safe wards often permit them to escape example: the sudden transfer to another ESWAMA zonal office secondument posting from the state Civil Service, staff of the ESWAMA by a cross fertilization of experience and expertise though the function of ESWAMA as stipulated states that they should collect, remove and dispose refuse in the area where they determine powers. The authority and also any other towns which may from time to time come under it’s operations.

Even though this sanitation authority has been established in various part of the state especially in the urban areas, there are some out standing constraints which include lack of general policy for environment sanitation. If this continues, the destruction of some irreplaceable resources and the creation of ecological imbalance will be the future and immediate consequences. The existing administrative set up for waste collection and disposal in inadequate funded for instance cut of the 301, 562 million estimated in the third nation development plan for sewage drainage and refuse disposal, only about 43, 773, million of the total wards actually spent the various state government. The next limitation of the present administrative frame work in the present administrative frame work in the lack of qualified personnel to carryout the function of environment management. This has two dimensions first the lack of public health inspections in their state working with the authority. Nigeria at present has about 1,500 public health inspectors. At the current estimated population, the ratio of public health inspectors to the people is 1,600. This is from what we recommend 1 – 1000, the authority  has problems over simplifications.

This means that tendency to deal with system to exclusion of causes they have not considered the indiscipline among Nigeria the fact that there is over utilization of facilities available and the lack of qualified public health inspector are the causes of the incinerate conditions. There is the issue of administrative inefficiency and incapacitation in dealing with the problem clearing official dump centers and the enforcement of regulation to stop people from dumping in unauthorized places.     


CHAPTER 3

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY

Research Deign

The research method use in any research study is determined substantially by the nature of the research and the objective of the study.

Since this is aimed at investigating the environmental management in Nigeria with Enugu State Waste Management Authority as case study. I would use survey method to collect experimentally reliable and valid data from the selected firm, keeping in view the sample survey in respect of the population hence, the survey method is most often applied.

Area of Study

This research work concentrates on the environment management in Nigeria with Enugu State Waste Management Authority (ESWAMA) as the case study.

Population of the Study

The data for this study were obtained form a random sample of 1000 employees of Enugu State Waste Management Authority. This includes all the cadic of the job and male and  female workers.

Sample Size and Sampling Techniques

Ndagi (1981) is as a limited number of elements selected from a population which is representative of the population hence sample size determination in dues showing how the representative of what was selected. The researcher determined. The sample size mathematically by the use of statistical methods.

In determining the sample size technique therefore the following formula given by Yaro Yammenti will be used.

Where

n      =      Sample size

N      =      Number of items in universe or population

I       =      Constant

e      =      Square of maximum allowance for sampling error.

Here we have a population of 1000 workers the margin or error of significant was 5%

Thus

       

  285.7 becomes the sample size

 

 

Instrument for Data Collection

It is important to know that instrument used to collect data in this study for the purpose of this study the instrument used were questionnaires that were distribute determined by Enugu State Waste Management Authority statistical formular for infinite population. Forty six (46) copies were distributed while 40 copies were returned. the other comprise of question relating to other variable like employee relationship in ESWAMA company. The data collected were from the Enugu State Waste Management Authority which consisted of the top management, middle management and lower management.

Reliability of the Instrument

Reliability of an Enugu State Waste Management instrument refers to the consistency and dependent to eliminate errors in the information obtaining for the purpose of the study the test instrument must be dependable, consistent and stable in measurement regarded, as reliable and predictable instrument.

Validity of the Instrument

Validity entails that there is adequate representation in the population study. The measure is valid because the sample reflects 46 people out of 52 in the organization. This measure was carried out using the pilot test as a measure of instrument validity. Validity of an instrument can be defined as the degree to which a researcher or a test measures what it purports measure.

 

Method of Data Collection

Questionnaires were distributed through the research with the help of the public relations officers, randomly among the staffs, hence 46 copies of questionnaires were administered to various staff and 40 was found useful and collected by the research in persons. The researcher adopted face method of administration which is known as the personal contact and also it was adopted randomly as she guarded against the loss of instrument.

Method of Data Analyses

This information study is presented in a tabular form with the percentage of different respond. The statistical too used is simple percentage and Z-test. The formular is:

 

Where

P      =      Sample proportion

P      =      Population portion

N      =      Sample size

I = P = Q = Proportion of fails

P = Proportion of success

The sample percentage will be used in this study where determining the number of respondent which were on agreement or disagreement with the question asked. It is defined as the proportion of data multiplied by 100 that is:                                                                                           

Where = Proportion of population that is either in agreement of a particular question.

N = population which is the total number of agreement on a particular question

The mortality rate is

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER 4

DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

The chapter discusses the methods and procedures used for the collection of data in the course of this research work. In this study, the researcher used both primary and secondary sources gathering information.

Presentation of Data

Secondary and primary sources of data were utilized in the research work.

Primary Data Source

Donald and Tull (1980: 21) said that Primary data refers to the relevant process of information generated purposely and specially for a study”. In achieving this tow sets of questionnaires were designed one set was administered to some selected staff of ESWAMA and the other to selected inhabitants of Enugu metropolis.

Secondary Data

Secondary data have refers to the prices of information which have been in existence before this study. These is mainly collected through survey of document available. These include text books magazines, journals Newspapers, unpublished articles and research and project report in the related field.

To gain access of these material, the following libraries and institution were visited.

1)           Enugu State Waste Management Authority

2)           Enugu State University of Science and Technology library Enugu

3)           Federal Office of Statistics Enugu

4)           University of Nigeria Nsukka library (Enugu-Campus).

Presentation and Analysis of Data

In this section the various Data Collected will be classified according to response from respondents. This was done on the basis of research question in the first chapter.

Analysis of the Research Questions:

What is the distance of refuse depot from your house of residence?

The distance of dump sit from your house of residence is less than 1km. How true is this?

Table 2

Option

Respondents

Percentage %

True

180

85.80

Untrue

25

15.10

Total

205

100%

Source: Field Work, 2013

 

 What means do you use to reach your dump site?

Table II

Option

Respondents

Percentage %

Motorcycle

72

35.12

Untrue foot

100

53.67

Vehicle

33

7.80

Total

205

100%

Source: Field Work, 2013

The dump site produces to the residents do you agree?

Table III

Option

Respondents

Percentage %

Agree

195

80.10

Disagree

10

75.11

Total

205

100%

Source: Field Work, 2013

Table above showed that 180 (85.80%) respond positively that dump sit is less than 1km 25 (15.10%) responded negatively that it is not less than 1km.

Table II above showed that 75 (35.12%) reach dump site by motorcycle. 100(53.67%) by foot and 33(7.70%) respondent by vehicle.

Table III above show that 195 respondents agree that dump site produce odour to the resident and 10(75.11%) respondent disagreed from the above analysis, the dump site is very close to the people.

Research Question Two

What is the nature of Nuisance cause by uncollected solid waste?

How true is this assertion?

Table 1

Option

Respondents

Percentage %

True

150

85.11

Untrue

55

14.9

Total

205

100%

Source: Field Work, 2013

 Table 1 show that more people 150 respondent representing 85.11% said that uncollected solid waste cause health hazard, 55 (14.9%) respondent responded negatively that it does not cause or bread the following.

 

Table 11

Option

Respondents

Percentage %

Dirty environment

112

4.88

Smelling environment

59

28.78%

Lies/mosquitoes

24

11.71

Total

205

100%

Source: Field Work, 2013

 

Table 11 show that 112  respondent represent 54.63% said all of the above, 24 (11.71%) said that it is lies/mosquitoes, 59 (28.78%) respondent said it is smelling environment while 10(4.88) respondent said it is dirty environment uncollected solid waste has render our access road unmotoreable.

Table 111

Option

Respondents

Percentage %

Agree

108

95.1

Disagree

97

4.9

Total

205

100%

Source: Field Work, 2013

Table 111 show that more people 108 (95.1) said or agree that uncollected solid waste render our access road unmotoreable 37 (4.9) respondent disagree. This analysis shows that uncollected solid waste cause nuisance to the residents.

Research Question Three

How often does ESWAMA curt away refuse from your house.

Table 1

Option

Respondents

Percentage %

Frequent

53

25.85

Sometimes

33

16.10

Rarely

119

58.05

Total

205

100%

Source: Field Work, 2013

Table 1 shows that 53 (25.85) respondents said that ie has been done frequent 33(16.10) respondents said some times while 119 (58.05%) respondents claimed that they rarely do their job.

 

 

 

Table 11

Option

Respondents

Percentage %

True

53

25.85

Untrue

152

74.15

Total

205

100%

Source: Field Work, 2013

Table 11 shows that 53 (25.85%) respondents claimed positively that ESWAMA remove refuse every Thursday, while 152 (14.15) people responded negative that ESWAMA odes not remove refuse every Thursday.

ESWAMA only collected refuse of those who are not owing.

Table 111

Option

Respondents

Percentage %

Agree

70

36.40

Disagree

135

67.60

Total

205

100%

Source: Field Work, 2013

 

Table 111 shows that 70 (35.40%) respondents believed that ESWAMA collect refused of those who are not owing than while 135 (64.60%) disagree that ESWAMA does not collect  refuse of those who are not owing.

This analysis showed that ESWAMA does not collect refuse often and not efficeinct.

Research Question Four

What are the factors that hinder ESWAMA inefficient?

Table 1

Option

Respondents

Percentage %

Agree

119

53.80

Disagree

81

35.90

Total

205

100%

Source: Field Work, 2013

Table 1, shows that 119 (53.80%) claimed that lack of under make ESWAMA inefficient while 87 (35.90%) responded negatively poor management policies have been a major set back on performance of ESWAMA

 

 

 

 

 

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