ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF SALMONELLA SPECIES FROM PATIENT SUFFERING FROM TYPHOID FEVER
(A CASE STUDY OF PARK LANE SPECIALIST HOSPITAL, ENUGU)
Salmonella Typhi is a rod-shaped Gram-negative bacteria with pesitrichus flagella. They belong to the family Entero bacterioceae and inhabit the large bowel of man. They are found in most food poisoning and tracealole to faecal contaminations. They grow both aerobically and anaerobically and are the main cause of typhoid fever.
Microorganism in the blood sampled from patient of Park Lane Specialist Hospital, Enugu were tested for Salmonella typhi. To do this, Blood samples of 110 patients were collected taking coganizance of their differences in age and sex and using Bacteriological isolation and widal test method. These bloods were cultured and screened appropriately with standard media such as triple sugar iron agar, selenite F. Broth, Deoxychcolate Citrate agar etc.
The result of the two methods were to say the least identical with Nine (9) positive cases displaying active infections and twelve (12) indicating weak infection. While fifty (50) cases tested maintaining could enhance maintaining good sanitary condition, improvement in quality of portable water supply and applicable of proper sewage disposal, could enhance negative prevention of typhoid fever.
Table of Contents
1.1 Biology of Bacterial Infection (Bacteriology)
1.3 Significant of Study
1.4 Statement of Problem
1.5 Objectives of the Study
1.7 Limitation of the Study
1.8 Definition of Terms
2.1 Cultural Characters
2.3 Consequence of Salmonella Typhi-Typhoid fever
2.4 Sources of Infection
2.5 Pathogenesis of Enteric Fever
2.6 Clinical Manifestation
2.7 Laboratory Diagnosis
2.8 Isolation of Salmonella Specie from the Blood
MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1 Bacterialogical Isolation of Salmonella Typhi from Blood
3.2 Widal Test
3.3 Agglutination Test
4.1 Bacteriological Test
4.2 Widal Test Result
4.3 Distribution Table for Patient Tested for Salmonella Typhi (Widal Test)
4.5 Format for Widal Test
DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Salmonella are gram-negative bacteria bacillus motile aerobic rods which character is tically failed to foment lactose and are pathogenic to man and animal by the oral route. The germs salmonella includes a large number of pathogens of human being as well as mammals, which are antigenetically related to one another. Salmonella enterica serouor typhimurium defintive type in the second most prevalent serotype isolated from human. Cases after S. enterica serovar Enteritictis phage type. Salmonella serotype cause good poisoning outbreaks, which is associated with low-water activity in food. The processing of certain food contains low-water activity ingredients known to involve heat treatments, and it is in this situation that knowledge of the effect of prior exposure to low water requires a heat tolerances of salmonella species, thus, the salmonella spp. Contaminate low-water activity in food ingredients for example the species may be more heat tolerant than expected (Ernest et al, 1970).
Morphologically, the members of salmonella resemble other member of the family Enterobactenacese. These are the Gram-negative bacilli, which are non-acid fast, non-capsulated and non-sporing. These measure 2-4Nm x 0.6 Nm with the exception of Gallinarium – prilloum serotype which is motile with the help of peritrichious flagellae. Salmonella causes disease or illness called Typhoid fever and they are named Salmonella typhi.
Salmonella species posses acute symptoms like Nausea, Vomiting, abdominal cramps, minal diarrhea, fever and headache. Chronic consequence, arthritic symptoms may follow 3 – 4 weeks after on set of acute symptoms. The duration of acute symptoms may last for 1 – 2 days or may be prolonged depending on the host factors, ingested dose and strain characteristics. This disease is caused by the penetration and passage of salmonella organisms from gut lumen into epithelium of the small intestine where inflammation occurs.
Salmonella also associated with food like raw meat, poultry, eggs, milk and darry product, fish, shrimp, frog legs, yeast, coconut, cake mixes etc. Various salmonella species have long been isolated from the outside of eggshells. The present situation with S. Enteritictis is complicated by the presence of the organism inside the egg in the yolk. This is transmitted in the