AN INVESTIGATION OF SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AMONG DIABETIC ADULT IN ENUGU STATE.
As its title suggests, this project is geared at presenting the reader with the investigation and biochemical parameters among diabetic adult. Diabetes as a chronic disease, that causes serious health complication like heart diseases, increased urination, increases hunger and increased thirst etc is a diseases that has been diagnosed to be the causes of high blood sugar and also cause by lifestyle factors, genetics, inheritance and poor secretion, this investigation through it biochemical parameter of diabetes in adult has been assumed that, high level of protein in adult diabetes can course a serious problem in the diabetics people by damaging their kidney. This is because if albumin and globulin level which makeup the total level of protein are allowed to leak their fluid into the tissue, which it level in urine is about 1000 – fold lower than those in the blood, it indicate that diabetes is beginning to affect the kidneys, while in the order hand the level of globulin result as lack of kidney filteration. This can be prevented by changing the lifestyle of dietary protein intake in diabetics adult by controlling the level of the total protein such as albumin and globulin level in the blood.
Diabetes is a disease and also a metabolic disorder of glucose metabolism. Diabetes as defined by oxford dictionary, I a disease of the pancrease in which sugar and starchy foods cannot be properly absorbed.
Nelson and Cox (2000) stated that; diabetes caused by a deficiency in the secretion or action of insulin is defective under normal circumstances, some of the food people eat is converted to glucose during metabolism.
Glucose is carried in the blood stream and move into the cells where it is available as energy, through the action of a hormone called insulin, insulin is the most important hormone that regulates the amount of glucose in the blood, it is the rate at which glucose is taken up by the tissue and the conversion of glucose to glycogen.
People with diabetes do not produce enough insulin to move glucose into cells, or the body resistance to the insulin that is produced, in either case, the glucose builds up in the blood stream above 180g in the blood and is excreted in the urine.
Also if the organ that produce the insulin (pancrease) gets damaged or removed by operation, then diabetes will occur Hollander (2005), explained that if the body produces some other substances which oppose the action of the insulin the pancreases has produced in the normal amount, it will lead to diabetes mellitus.
1.1 TYPES OF DIABETES
The different type of diabetes are classified by the underlying insulin problem, they include.
i) Type diabetes also called insulin dependent (IDDM). This is when a patient’s body produces little or no insulin, in this form, the body’s own immune system attacks itself destroying the cell that are responsible for greeting insulin. This type one diabetes have been speculated that it may be caused by a combination of genetic and environment factors.
David 2003 says it occurs commonly on patients under 25years (childhood and adolescence. In this type of diabetes, the patients body produces little or insulin (Genuth, 2007) further explains that diabetes type I was traditionally known as juvenile diabetes because it shows mainly on children, there is no preventive measure against type I diabetes
ii) Type II Diabetes
Type two diabetes is also known as non- insulin department diabetes, dependent diabetes (NIDDM) this is when the body is resistance to the insulin that is produced. This form of diabetes, account for about 80 percent of all diabetes case. It is closely linked to obesity and occurs more frequently in African, native America, and pacific islanders.
It is sometimes as aged mature adult diabetes which occurs mostly between over-weight and does that doesn’t exercise or due to abnormality of insulin (Harries, 2000) type two diabetes are apparently seen in many healthy people this diabetes can be controlled with diet and oral medication. Also insulin injection are sometimes necessary if treatment with oral medication and diet is not working out.
iii) GESTATIONAL DIABETES
Gestational diabetes resembles type 2 diabetes in several respects it occurs in about 2 – 5% of all pregnancies and may improved or disappear after delivery. Gestational diabetes is fully treatable but requires careful medical supervision throughout the pregnancy, untreated gestational diabetes can damage the health of the festus or mother. Risk to the baby include macrosomia (High birth weight) and skeletal muscle malformation. (David, 2003). He further explained that about 20% = 50% of affected women develop type 2 diabetes laterin life.
1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
This project work is aimed to investigate the some of Biochemical parameters among diabetes Adult, it also centers on the actual Biochemical parameters to deferent diabetic patient.
It is also aimed at finding various method or ways of curing people with diabetes, it consequences and providing adequate drugs, insulin or treatment for a particular type of diabetes.
1.3 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Diabetes is a dangerous metabolic disease which responsible for most of adult mortality rate in African Asia and America. Diabetes is caused by absolute or relative insulin deficiency.
When carbohydrate is taken the body system coverts starch in the carbohydrate to glucose, which is carried into the blood stream and move in the cell where it is available for energy. People with diabetes can lead to other disease like ulcer high blood pressure and hypertension.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY
Diabetes result from the inability of the insulin to transport glucose the blood steam to the various cell in the body thereby increasing the blood sugar in the extract level of glucose in the blood is known using the appropriate method, in will enable the physicians to give the diabetic patients the right therapy that can reduce the glucose level in the blood.
Also, it will help the doctor to give specialized and expert adviser to the patient in terms of the types of diet to be taken, the type of exercises to be done etc. Also, a general knowledge of the disease, it’s caused and management that will be critical analyzed in this project work will serves as a prophylactic treatment for those that are not diabetes.
Above all, the project work is important because it will provide a more suitable and accurate method of determining the protein level and glucose level in the body.
Ho: Biochemical parameters are protein and glucose level are affected by Diabetes mellitus.
Hi: Biochemical parameters are protein and glucose level are not affected by Diabetes mellitus.