STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF EXAMINATION MALPRACTICE IN THE TERTIARY INSTITUTION
(A CASE STUDY OF IMT, ENUGU)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of contents
1.1 Statement of problem
1.2 Examination malpractice
1.3 Aims and objectives
1.4 Statement of hypothesis
1.5 Scope of the study
1.6 Significance of the study
1.7 Limitation of the study
1.8 Terminology associated with exams malpractice
2.0 Literature Review
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY
3.1 The target population
3.2 Statistical sample design
3.3 Determination of sample size
3.4 Method of data collection
3.5 Problems encounter during data collection
3.6 Sex distribution of respondents
3.7 Age distribution of respondents
3.8 Distribution by sex and academic level
3.9 Method of data analysis
3.10 The chi-square (x2) test
3.11 Assumption on the use of x2 test
3.12 Formular distribution for spiegel (1992)
3.13 Calculation of expected frequency
3.14 The contingency co-efficient
3.15 Testing the significance of the continuance co-efficient
3.16 Student opinion on the causes of examination malpractice in institute of management technology
3.17 Contribution of the method of teaching in the school to students’ lact of interest
3.18 Student on the common form of examination malpractice in the institute of management
3.19 Distribution of student opinion on school that is most often involved in exam malpractice.
4.0 Presentation and analysis of statistical data
4.1 Using pie chart
4.2 Using multiple bar chart
5.0 Summary of findings recommendation and conclusion
5.1 Summary of finding
5.2 Recommendation and conclusion
1.1 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
That we are living in a changing world is a popular statement which needs little explanation especially when the knowledge of today can be the fully of tomorrow or when a human being of today can oil to exist on the day that follows when such natural phenomena occur, one does not bother as to ask why these happen out when they are accompanied by abnormal happenings on become worried and asks why which he seldom finds and such is examination malpractice.
Examination malpractices in our tertiary institution have become a social molady which have adversely affected the have and have notes, the hardworking and society in general such corrupt practices have succeeded in tarnishing the past government and management of such institution employed different strategies to move up the shameful situation from our tertiary institution, but unfortunately all their efforts were uneventful or uncertainly.
1.2 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Some of the examination rules which one should not violate are.
(a) Avoiding conversation while examination is in progress
(b) Coming into the hall with you identity card
(c) Submitting answer script after proper endured before going out of the hall
(d) Refrain oneself from copying or writing for another obedience to the invigilator.
(e) Not coming to the hall with expected answer written as pieces of paper.
As regards to these rules, one who violate them is likely to face the consequences for it by the committee. The punishment depends on the magnitude of the offence. Some of the offence after being looked into by the committee one is asked to withdraw from the institution or stay back. These culprit would not be caught without the proper vigilance of the invigilator or supervisor. Therefore, having seen from above I can now say malpractice is legal action taken by a person in a position of trust. This means when applied to examination situation that any contrary action performed by someone against certain examination regulation can be termed examination malpractice.
Statistics has shown the examination malpractice became a very common they in early eighteen and as a result, the instant had to set up a coming that will have to be looking into these malpractice cases. This committee was inaugurated in 1982/83 and was called “Examination Malpractice Committee”.
This committee spells out the appropriate punishment for any culprits involve.
According to the institution (IMT) academe and examination regulations prepared in June 1992, some of the regulation which candidates are required to comply with are.
i. All students shall arrive at the designated examination hall thirty minutes before the scheduled time.
ii. No student shall enter the hall unless they are asked to do so by the co-ordinator
iii. A student must enter examination hall with current original school fees receipt current identity card, pencil etc
iv. Calculator if required but not a programmable type
v. Ruler and any other material table etc that may be permitted by the chief invigilator.
vi. If a candidate report to the examination without his/her I.D card, he/she should report to the chief – co-ordinators with a recent passport photograph endorsed by the it on
If it is discovered that the person who wrote the examination is not the owner of the identity card, it became a case of impersonation.
vii. No candidate shall have other material in his/her possession, even a private letter, while he/she is inside the examination hall.
viii. No caps, head ties and sun-glasses shall be allowed and student writing the same paper shall not sit side by side.
ix. No candidate is allowed to enter the examination hall sixty 960) minutes after the examination hall is prohibited.
x. Students are not allowed to tear any paper from either the question paper or answer script for any purpose including rough work. All rough works must be done at the back of his/her answer scripts and then be cancelled. No rough work is permitted on the question paper on the desk at his or palm or anything else other than the answer scrip.
xi. No student wishing to draw the attention of invigilators to any particular issue shall do only by raising his/her hand.
xii. No alteration or cancellation is allowed on the registration number and blank spaces must be ruled across by students.
xiii. All students in the examination hall entitled to sign the attendance shall I.D cards to the invigilator who will then sign your answer script indication that you are presence in the examination day.
xiv. Student shall ensure that they enter the question attempted in the appropriate columns on the front cover of the script.
xv. Student must rule across all blank spaces of the examination answer booklets used during the examination i.e. either by cheating, copying, using material etc other than the one specified.
1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
The aims and objectives of this study are
1. To find out whether examination malpractice depend on sex, school, academic level.
2. To determine whether examination malpractice committee has helped to reduce examination malpractice in IMT.
3. To know the commonest examination practice in IMT
4. To determine the school/faculty that indulges most in examination malpractice in IMT and suggest why.
5. To suggest its effect on the standard of education for example on IMT and to suggest ways of minimizing them.
6. To find out whether lecturers has contributed to the examination.
1.4 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS
1. Null Hypothesis: There is no significant different between exam misconduct and exam conduct.
H1: There is significant different between exam misconduct and exam conduct.
2. H0: There is no significant different between examination and malpractice.
H1: There is significant between examination and.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
There are about thirty six (36) states in Nigeria including the Federal Capital Territory Abuja, however, the study was limited to Enugu State. Enugu had been the capital of eastern region, and the economic operation that take place in other states of the federation is also carried out within the same socio – economic environment as a result, it was considered a fairly representative sample.
In other words as a result of the topic it serves that to some circumstances, 1 limited it to a particular school called IMT and limited to both female and male regular undergraduate.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Examination malpractice can be seen as a short cut to academic glory and it can be seen as a good benefit to those whoever be involve in it.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The subject, exam malpractice will be very vast in study if it is to be discussed alone. As regards this work is limited on the statistics analysis of the causes and effects of exams malpractice in the tertiary institution.
In this work, it is expended to answer certain question as regard the topic at state. Some of the questions ought to be answered are:
1. What is examination malpractice?
2. What leads to exam malpractice?
3. What are the consequences of exam malpractice?
4. How can the issue of stake be eliminated from our tertiary instillation
1.8 TERMINOLOGY ASSOCIATED WITH EXAM MALPRACTICE IN IMT
A process of putting question forward in order to test knowledge or get information.
Impersonation is when somebody pretends to be or act the part of somebody else.
In this case of study, this simply means when a student that is convinced to be more intelligent enters into the examination hall to assist somebody that seems to be less privilege and regulation, governing examination.
Manner and ways exam are being scheduled and carried out effectively. It is usually carried out at a given period according to the school calendar.
These are set of people or group of people that are selected from various department which statistics is inclusive to into cases of people who view the case or different people. This is as a result of new development from the accused that is not convincing enough to the management.
This is going against the rules governing an examination ie either by cheating, copying, using material other than the one specified.
Is another, which the candidate that is connects to exam malpractice adopts in drawing attention of his/her colleague to answer his/her demand base on the question on the exam paper which he know nothing or little about.
It happens that when this whistling occurs, the partner of the bearer is always alerted to supply any required material to satisfy the others need through any possible channel that is open him/her.
BODY LANGUAGE OR SIGN LANGUAGE
This is a special act of examination malpractice which candidates commonly adopt during examination test. This system of coding and decoding information through sign language and is widely spread out among students of exam malpractice in the examination hall believe that it is difficult understand what is happening in the examination premises.
Some of those signs could be raising up a finger tip of various types to indicate problems or translate reply information.
Photocopying another candidates answer.
Elogation of one’s neck in order to copy another work.
A displayed answer to a question on a rough note or piece of paper, which have the contents of answering or relates ideas on any unknown examination question.
It implies to a structure who appears to represent another with take identities with the claims of being the one partaking in examination on its own interest.
The most popular and most common cheating strategy is the possession of another person’s unauthorized material by somebody that relieve it or some body else is known as microchip otherwise known as “fast guy no be thief”.
It is the act of using reminder.
DIRECT ENTRY OR COUNTERFEIT FORMULA
It involves multiple registration, a situation where the student make dual registration, using a bongus number for the other.
This is another method adopted by students cheat by the entire class members and in this case a question of born again no deep.
The use of physical might in which student snatch question paper from invigilator.
SHORT – PUT
The throwing of written answers to choice candidate in the hall.