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The Attitude Of Female Mass Communication Students Towards Journalism As A Career

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THE ATTITUDE OF FEMALE MASS COMMUNICATION STUDENTS TOWARDS JOURNALISM AS A CAREER

ABSTRACT

The researcher in this research work focused on the attitude of female mass communication believed that a large number of female mass communication students wants to choose journalism as a career in our country but only a few go into the field to practice their journalism profession. This is why the research dimmed it fit to research into the image of female mass communication students. Research questions are constructed to guide the researcher in her study. Relevant related literatures are reviewed to show that similar research work has been carried out and a theoretical framework has been discussed to support the study. Survey method was adopted and this made it possible for the researcher to select an appropriate sample size of 150. Using appropriate tools like questionnaires and personal interviews, the researcher was able to study population and adopted a simple percentage and frequency table with simple descriptive analysis to explain the table. Hypothesis which are formed from the research questions and tested to enable the researcher know if certain claims she made on this work received statistical support or not. At the end of the study, the researcher was able to find out that female mass communication students have negative attitude towards journalism as a career, also that the female roles as mothers and wives are some of this problem facing female journalists. The researcher also recommended that salaries of the working journalist should be increased so as to motivate and change the negative attitude of female mass communication students towards journalism as a career.

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page ------------------------------------------------------------------ i

Approval page ---------------------------------------------------------------ii

Dedication -------------------------------------------------------------------iii

Acknowledgement ----------------------------------------------------------iv

Table of contents --------------------------------------------------------- v

Abstract ----------------------------------------------------------------------vi

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction ……………………………………………………………. 1

1.1 Background of the study …………………………………………… 1

1.2 Statement of the research problem ………………………………. 4

1.3 Objectives of the study ……………………………………………….6

1.4 Significance of the study ……………………………………………. 6

1.5 Research questions …………………………………………………..8

1.6 Research hypothesis ………………………………………………… 8

1.7 Definition of terms ………………………………………………….10

1.8 Assumptions of the study …………………………………………13

1.9 Scope of study ………………………………………………………13

1.10 Limitation of the study ………………………………………….14

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature review ………………………………………………….. 15

2.1 Sources of literature ………………………..……………………. 16

2.2 Review of relevant literature …………………………………….. 16

2.2.1 Female attitude towards journalist ………………………….16

2.2.2 Discrimination against female journalist ………………… 20

2.2.3 Reasons why female mass communication students shy away from journalism as a career …………………………………………24

2.2.4 Impressions about female journalists ………………………25

2.3  Theoretical framework ……………………………………………26

2.4  Summary of literature ……………………………………………28

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 Methodology ……………………………………………………… 30

3.1 Research design …………………………………………………. 30

3.2 Area of study …………………………………………………….. 30

3.3 Population of the study ……………………………………….. 31

3.4 Sample size ……………………………………..……………….. 31

3.5 Sampling technique …………………………………………… 32

3.6 Validity of the instrument ……………………………………33

3.7 Method of data collection ……………………………………33

3.8 Method of data analysis ……………………………………..34

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 Presentation and analysis of data ……………………….. 35

4.1 Data presentation and analysis ……………………………35

4.2 Hypothesis testing …………………………………………….45

4.3 Discussion of findings ………………………………………. 51

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0 Summary, conclusion and recommendations for

 further study …………………………………………………….…54

5.1 Summary…………………………………………………………54

5.2 Conclusion …………………………………………………… 56

5.3 Recommendations for further study ……………………..57

5.4 References …………………………………………………….. 60

Appendix A ………………………………………………………… 62

Questionnaire…………………………………………………………63

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKAROUND OF THE STUDY

Journalism the work of collection, preparation and distribution of related commentary and feature materials through such media as pamphlets, news – letter, magazines, radio, motion pictures, television, the internet and books.

The earlist known journalists product was a news sheet in ancient Rome called the ACTA DIURNA published daily from 59BC, it was hung in prominent places and recorded important social and political events.

Journalism in the 2oth was marketed by a growing sense of professionalism. In our society today it has been observed that female mass communication students have negative attitude towards taking journalism as a career. This negative attitude is highly reflected in the number of mass media houses.

Almost all institution of higher learning in nigeria offer mass communication courses leading to the award of various degrees and certificates, including National Diploma, Higher National Diploma, Bachelor and masters degrees.

The increase in the number of female graduates from all these institution are not reflected in the media of communication in the country. Each year, hundreds of female students graduates as mass communications. A close look show that the number of female journalist students surpassed the number of males. But in the field today, a good number of those female graduates are not seen working in the various media houses scattered over the country.

 Reference to the convocation booklets from these schools revealed that a good number of female mass communication students graduated from these schools. In the year 1997, about 150 female journalist graduated from federal polytechnic oko. The Ogun state polytechnic in the year turned out about 86 female journalist students, institute of management and technology (IMT) Enugu had about 140 female graduates. Bida polytechnic had about 26 female graduates from the department of mass communication.

In July 1996, the Ogun state polytechnic turned out 146 female student journalists in both OND and HND levels, the institute of management and technology (IMT) Enugu turned out about 120 female student graduates in both ND and HND levels ( 1996 convocation list/booklets).

Similarly with other mass communication schools in the country for instance, in 1995, the convocation booklets of the University of Nigerian Nsukka, revealed that 45 female students graduated from the department of mass communication. In the year 2008, Nnamdi Azikiwe University (NAU) Awka turned out about 58 female graduates from the department of mass communication. Between the year 2008 and 2009, caritas university Enugu graduated over 50 female journalists.

Presently, in my class in the department of mass communication the number of female students surpassed the number of female students in the mass communication with a great difference.

In recent years, media houses in the western countries lack trained female journalist in the various communication activities. Invariably it has been the same in Nigerian and this could be seen in most cases of the media houses in Nigerian. There has been an inbalance in the number of female, female and trained journalists working with them.

Those who are worried about this situation said that there were more women than men seeking jobs in the media houses and they all have the same ability and background, more men get the jobs. ( women in communication pg 8) she noted that women could only be awarded a job if they are hard working and qualified they must be awarded or offered a job in the journalism profession.     

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM

This study was undertaken because of the low participation of female mass communication students towards practicing journalism as their career. Despite the fact that there is considerably good number of trained female journalists, very few of them are working with media houses in Nigerian

A large number of female journalists are produced from different institutions offering mass communication, but female participation in the profession is very negligible.

According to Omenugha (2004:4) “one thing that is glaring in the Nigerian media is the near absence of Nigerian women as makers”. Though Nigerian is developing, it has gotten to a stage where the female journalist and their male counterparts should be competing in the media houses.

The number of female journalists in the field is very few compared to the number that graduated from journalism schools and universities. The female tend to run away from practicing journalism. Women journalists are not often seen as lectures neither to women help in the development and promotion of the profession unlike in other professions where the female and male compete and seek superiority over each other.

This dormant attitude of female towards the profession has resulted to the male claiming superiority over them in the field and as such not portraying a good image of women in the society. This is because most men in the society believe that journalism exposes the practitioners makes the female counterparts loose their dignity.

Many female journalists who work in the media sometimes do not show keen interest in their job. This affects the female practitioners as the male practitioners always tend to over shadow them both in position and in interest to work.

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