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Microobial Evaluation Of Ram Milk From A Diary Farm

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MICROOBIAL EVALUATION OF RAM MILK FROM A DIARY FARM

ABATRACT

 

 

Microbial evaluation of twenty samples of raw milk from a diary farm (Emene fulani cattle rearers) was carried out using five method: viz direct microcopies count nutrient agar count, Blood agar count, Mac conkey agar count (celiforms only) and Acid fast bacilli staring was done to  assay for the presence of the Tubercle bacillus. The bacterial was were as follows: direct microscopic counts ranged from 9.0x 105 to 9.5 x 107  counts on Nutrient agar ranged from 9.0 x 104 to 8.0x 105 counts on blood agar ranged from 7.0x 104 to 9.8x10 while counts on Mac country agar ranged between 5.0x 102 to 5 . 0 x 10. The Acid fast bacilli staring did not show a single bacillus, an indication of tubercle free. The gram staring  result indicate single chains clusters gram positive bacilli and gram negative bacilli which are characteristics of staphylococcus spp streptococcus spp lactobacillus spp and coliform. it is suggested that milk maids and milk processors should endeavor to wash the udder of the con, sterols their equipment and   containers as well as improving their personal hygiene during milk collection . these will contribute to the quality of products  in our milk industries as well as the good health of man especially the fulani cattle rearers that drink without pasteurization.

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENT

 

Title page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

List of  table

Table of content

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0            introduction

1.1            Background information

1.2            Statement on problem

1.3            Aim and objective of the study

1.4            Hypethesis

1.5            Justification of the study

1.6            Limitation of the study

CHAPTER TWO

2.0            Literature Review

2.1            sources of raw Milk

2.2            . composition of raw milk

2.3            Raw Milk as a growth medium

2.4            Sources of contamination of raw Milk.

2.5            Contaminant of raw Milk

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0            Methodology

3.1            material and apparatus

3.2            collection of sample

3.3            preparation of culture media

3.4            Quantitative analysis of total bacteria.

3.4.1      Direct Microscopy

3.4.2       Viable plate count

3.4.3Gram sating

3.4.4Acid fast Bacilli stain

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0            Results and Discussion

4.1            results

4.2            discussion

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0            Conclusion And Recommendation

5.1            Conclusion

5.2            Recommendation

Reference

Appendix

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND INFORMATION

Milk is defined as a secretion  of mammary gland of female animals. It is an exceptionally good source of protein which is of a high biological value in promoting the growth of children (ihekorany and Ngoddy, 1985). Milk  is decribed as a good of outstanding interest, which is designed by nature to be  complete good for very young mammals (fox and Cameron, 1980).

Milk contains a wide variety of  constituents and contains  most of the food factors associated with bacterial nutrition. Milk as a single food is of high nutritional value and is associated with spoilage microorganisms. At the time milk leaves the udder of the healthy cow, it contains few bacteria these stem from milk  ducts and cistern. During the milking process, bacteria are usually added from various sources. In hand milking the sources are air the hair of the animal manure, the milkers equipment such as pails, feed and machine, most of these environmental factors are less important. However, the milking equipment may serve as an important source of contamination if it is not carefully cleaned and sanitized (ihekoronye and Ngoddy, 1985) .

After milk has been drawn it is rapidly cooled to 45 of prevent contaminants from multiplying. To eliminate pathogens from milk the process of pasteurization is applied. This involves application of heat below the boily point (fraizer and westhoff, 1978).

 

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