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Prevalence Study Of Hepatitis B (australian Antigen) Among Patient In National Orthopediae Hospital Enugu

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PREVALENCE STUDY OF HEPATITIS B

(AUSTRALIAN ANTIGEN) AMONG PATIENT IN NATIONAL ORTHOPEDIAE HOSPITAL ENUGU

ABSTRACT

 

The prevalence of viral hepatitis B among patients in National Orthopedic Hospital Enugu was studied. The samples comprised that of men , woman and children 200 in numbers, all patient of orthopedic Hospital Enugu. Laboratory investigation done were this HBs  tested which 110 patient out of the 200 patients tested positive,  and liver function tests found abnormal in almost all the patients that tested positive to HBsAG routine test. The commonest clinical presentations were fever and jaundice seen in Jo patient out of the 110 patients. The infection was  highest amongst young adult 21-30 years of age. This accounted for 17.5% of the positive patients population it was lowest amongst children 1-10 and old people 60-70 which  made up 5% of the infected population. The study also gave the general view of the group of individual affected whether children or adult, and the wid expired of the repetitious B. Hepatitis B one of the major cause of human suffering in the world despite a though understanding of its transmission and prevention and control by use of vaccine was found to be prevalent in National Orthopedic Hospital Enugu among the patients.

TABLE OF CONTENT

 

Title page                                                                                         

Certification                                                                                     

Dedication                                                                                        

Acknowledgement                                                                            

Abstract                                                                                           

Table of contents                    

                                                         

CHAPTER ONE

Introduction

1.1:    introduction to hepatitis b

1.2            Purpose of study

1.3            Significant  of study

1.4            Statement of problem

1.5            Limitation of study

1.6            Hypothesis

 

CHAPTER TWO

Literature review

2.1            Structure of hepatitis b virus

2.2            The genome and its organization

2.3            Taxonomy of the hepatitis b virus

2.4            Reproduction (repcication) of hepatitis bb  virus

2.5            Origin of the term “ Australian aborigine”.

2.6            Mode of transmission of hepatitis b

2.7            Hbv and cell damage (Cytopathic effects)

2.8            Hepatitis b virus and hepatocellular, carcin0ns

2.9            Hepatitis b virus infection: acute and chronic

2.10       Prevention and control

2.11       Site of injection for vaccination

2.12       People at risk of contacting the virus

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.1:    materials used

3.2            Test for the presence of hepatitis b and

3.3            Principle for the above test

3.4            Serum bilirubin

3.5            Principle for the test above

 

CHAPTER FOUR

 Result

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1     discussion and conclusion

5.2     Conclusion

5.3     Recommendation

References

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF TABLE

 

Table 1: age distribution of the infected population                          33

Table 2: Sex distribution of the infected population                         33

Table 3: Area distributions of the infected population                      33

Table 4: The six categories of patients showing the number of Infected persons                                                                                                            33

Table 5: Result of the test using the six categories of patients                    34

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

1.1     INTRODUCTION TO HEPATITIS B

Viral hepatitis is a disease as old as the history of Medicine. Hepatitis was described in the Babylonian Talmud in the fifty century BC, and was referred to by Hippocratic over 2000 years ago. Despite this ancient knowledge, it was not until 1963, that the first human Repetitious virus was isolated, Hepatitis B. This was followed quickly by the purification of Hepatitis A in 1973, and more recently by the isolation of viruses C, D, E and G. These viruses are known to infect the human liver (Anderson et al; 2001).

However, there are more than twenty other viruses, which infect the human liver. These are not considered “Repatitis viruses” as these other viruses tend to infect organs other than the liver more seriously’. These include common viruses such as Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Mumps, Rubella, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) as well as rare ones such as Rassa fever and yellow fever viruses.

Any infection that results in inflammation of the liver is called Repatitis (Greek Repaticus, liver). Incidentally, not all “hepatitis” is caused by viruses. “HEPATITIS” means “inflammation of the liver”, and can be caused also by other types of infection (bacteria fungi etc); toxic drugs; poisons; alcoholism and so on (Drexott etal; 2005).

But of interest is one Repatitis virus – one of the most common infections diseases, causing an estimated 1.5millon deaths world wide each year – Hepatitis B. Hepatitis B is caused by the Repatitis B virus (HBV), a double – stranded circular DNA virus of complex structure. Hbv is class ivied as an orthoropadnavirus within the family hepadnaviridae. HBV was originally

 

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