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The Peevalence Of Streptococcus Pneumoniae In Pneumonia Ptients In Enugu Metropoli A Case Study Of Unth Enugu

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THE PEEVALENCE OF STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE IN PNEUMONIA PTIENTS IN ENUGU METROPOLI

A CASE STUDY OF UNTH ENUGU

ABSTRACT

The prevalence of streptococcus pneumonia in pneumonia patients using university of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH) Enugu as a case study was carried out based on the fact of the pneumonia is one of the commonest afflictions of the aged people and children worldwide. A total of 50 samples were collected. 12 (24%) of the sample were from sputum while 38 (76%) were from nasopharyned swabs from children who can not produce sputum using sterilized disposable swab sticks. 12 (24%) of the patients were adults and 38 (76%) were children under the age of the. 29 (58%) of the patients were made while 21 (42%) were female. The media used for isolation of bacteria were blood agar and chocolate agar plates. This was followed by their appropriate biochemical tests  5 different organisms were isolated. They streptococcus pneumonia’s 13 (26%) staphylococcus 17 (34%) streptococcus viridian’s 3(6%) other staphylococcus species 6(12%) mixed growth of staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus specie 1(2%) and non –significant growth of staphylococci and streptococci 10(20%). This study shows that the frequency of staphylococcus aureus is prater than streptococcus pneumonia’s which was earlier regarded as the most common pathogen that cause pneumonia.

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Title page                                                                               

Certification                                                                           

Dedication                                                                    

Acknowledgement                                                                  

Abstract                                                                                 

Table of content                                                            

Lists of table                                                                           

List of figures                                                                         

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     Introduction                                                        

1.1     Pathophysiology of bacterial pneumonia            

1.2     Classification of pneumonia                                

1.3     Causes of pneumonia                                                   

1.4     Justification                                                                  

1.5     Aims and objective                                                         

1.6     Hypothesis                                                                   

1.7     Statement of problem                                                   

1.8     Diagnosis                                                                      

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     Litterateur review                                                         

2.1     Epidemiology of pneumonia                               

2.2 Actiologic Agents of pneumonia                                      

2.3     Pathogenesis                                                                 

2.4     Mode of Transmission                                        

2.5     Risk group                                                          

2.6     mortality morbidity                                                      

2.7     Symptoms of pneumonia                                             

2.8     Treatment / management                                              

2.9     prevention                                                           

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     Materials and Method                               

3.1     Material                                                               

3.2     Collection of Samples                                           

3.3     Method of Sample Analysis                                  

3.4     Biochemical test to identify bacteria                               

3.5     Antimicrobial susceptibility test                                     

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     result                                                                             

4.1 Sources of  sample and type of bacteria isolated    

4.2     Age and sex distribution                                               

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     Discussion conclusion                               

5.1     Discussion                                                           

5.2     conclusion                                                           

5.3     Recommendation                                                

REFERENCES                                                                        

APPENDIX 1                                                                         

APPENDIX II                                                                                                                                                     

 

 

 

LIST OF TABLES

 

TABLE 1:   Appearance of the growth in the plates                         18

TABLE 2: Characteristics of isolates                                                          20

Table 3:      Abbreviations                                                                33

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF FIGURES

 

FIGURE I: presentation of the age distribution of patients in pie chart.                                                                                           20

FIGURE II: Presentation of the sex distribution of patients in pie chart                                                                                                    21

FIGURE III: Presentation of percentage of frequency of organization isolated in Bar chart.                                       22

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

1.0            INTRODUCTION

Bacterial  an  something cause severe infection in children the elderly and other people with weakened immune system is people that are more susceptible to infection because of an overal impairment of the immune response example Hiv infection chronic resease advanced aged and or function of defense mechanisms (example smoking chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (copd) tumours inhaled toxins and aspiration (Stephen 2002). 

The trachea, bronchi and lungs are normally free from communal and potentially pathogenic bacteria, but when their reference  are upset they       are liable to be invaded by organization from the throat or nose (fraser, 1996) one of the commonest infection of the lower respiratory tract is pneumonia (Jawetz, et ,2001).

 

1.1            PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF BACTERIAL PNEUMONIA

It is known that the inflammation of the lengs is called pneumonia it is pneumonia’s that result in the filling of alveoli with pus and fluid is called pneumonia (Naster et al 2001). Macrophages are numerous in the long issues and reality move into the alveoli and air ways to engaful infection

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