This study is focused specifically on the effect of time management on employees’ performance. It examines the influence of time management on employees’ performance. Enugu , using MICHELLE LABORATORY LTD. as a case study. Three research questions and three Hypotheses were formulated. The population for this study was made up of 260 and Taro Yamane formula was used to determine the sample size of 158 respondents who work in the various departments of the company. Descriptive Survey design was employed. The study elicited opinions of the subjects on the time management and its effect on employees’ performance. The major instruments used in the data collection for the study was questionnaire and interview. The test of a hypothesis was conducted using simple chi-square with the aid of the SPSS software, thus establishing the fact that time management is a significant tool for employees’ performance. The hypotheses were statistically significant therefore; the study accepted all the alternate hypotheses. The study concludes that time management is a relevant technique in the enhancement of employees performance in organizations. The study recommends that every manager should recognize the importance of time management in order to enhance commitment. Because time management is a secret to success. Again employees should learn to plan in order to utilize their time judiciously and save time for their social life.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Cover Page i
Title Page ii
Approval page iii
Table of contents vii
List of tables xi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 5
1.3 Objectives of the Study 6
1.4 Research Question 6
1.5 Research Hypotheses 6
1.6 Significance of the Study 7
1.7 Scope of the Study 7
1.8 Limitations of the Study 8
1.9 The Profile of the Organization used Operational
Place of Study 8
1.10 Definition of Terms 9
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 conceptual framework 11
2.1.1 Concept of Management 11
2.1.2 Time Management 13
2.1.3 Time Management Tips 15
2.1.4 The Need for Time Log 17
2.1.5 Challenges of Time Management 17
2.1.6 Effect of Time Management on Employees’ Performance 20
184.108.40.206 Proxies for Time Management 22
2.1.7 Employees’ Performance 23
220.127.116.11 Proxies for Employees’ Performance 24
2.2 Theoretical Frameworks 26
2.2.1 Weber’s Theory 26
2.2.2 Vilfredo Pareto Theory 27
2.2.3 Maslow’s Theory 28
2.3 Empirical Review 29
2.4 Summary of the review of the related Literature 33
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design 35
3.2 Area of the Study 35
3.3 Source of Data 35
3.3.1 Primary Source of Data 36
3.3.2 Secondary Source of Data 36
3.4 Population of the Study 37
3.5 Sample Size Determination 37
3.6 Instrument for Data Collection 38
3.7 Validity of the Instrument 38
3.8 Reliability of the Instrument 39
3.9 Data Collection Procedure 39
3.10 Method of Data Analysis 39
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Data Presentation 41
4.2 Analysis of Data 41
4.3 Testing for Hypothesis 55
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary of Findings 61
5.2 Conclusion 61
5.3 Recommendation 62
Appendix 60 Questionnaire 71
1.1 Background of the Study
In every organization there must be a manager who is at the helm of affairs to coordinate command and control organizational resources to achieve organizational goals efficiently and effectively. However, no manager can achieve this without the use of managerial skills of which time cannot be left out. As a manager or entrepreneur, you need to know how to manage your time very judiciously so as to avoid activities regarded as time killers that may debar you from accomplishing the organizational goal.
Time is a very important resource in management. Time limits us from accomplishing a lot of goals. Once time has come and gone, it can never be recalled back. Time is not kept in custody until when the need arises; it rather waits for no man. So we must make the best use of our time.
Time is of great essence, thus very vital for smooth performance of employees. Hence, time management is recognized as a critical factor for determining success in industries. Time management plays a relevant role in improving employees’ performance and achievements. Employees’ performance is the most crucial to the organization today on matter how successful or developed, it is man power which it has because those workers are the ones that has made the organization successful and developed it. This is why it has become so important for the organizations to look upon the performance of the employee in order to know who is doing well and who is not. And in order to know the performance of a worker, the managers must know how they are to calculate the performance level of them because it is important to understand how they must assess this information. Fredrick Taylor who has done research on the evaluation of the employees’ performance and says that it is not employees’ duty to know how well they are doing because one cannot tell themselves regarding their own goals but the management that is over the worker should be held responsible for this task. Therefore, manager in the organizations must look at the workers performance and according to that they must select the right position for them in the organization in which they will perform at their best. Fayol, (1916) came up with the 14 principles of management in which he had defined the qualities of the workers that had direct connection with their performance. Qualities of employees which would assess his or her performance were knowledge, skills, moral, physical, mental, and education.
Time management is constantly obliged when employee submits for the satisfaction of an undertaking or a task. Time management is also significant for the accomplishment of any occasion. Each and every employee should have time management ability which includes setting goals & priorities, using time management mechanism and being organized in using time. Here time management is only possible through self-motivation; performance, ability and commitment (Brigitte et al, 2005). These are the few activities performed by today’s managers, which act as a barrier between them and their employees’ performance. Due to miss management of time there is gap behind. This study will help to analyze the positive and negative effect of time management on the employees’ performance in an organization.
Time management is the management of the daily activities employees engage in during each time. The book of Ecclesiastes 3:1-8 says that “there is time for everything” so effective time management is one skill employees must learn for increased productivity, efficient and performance. What then is time management? Time management is the efficient use of our resources, including time, in such a way that employees and managers are effective in achieving important goals. To be efficient, employees and managers have to do the right things. To be effective employees and managers have to do the right things right.
Farouq (2000) opined that time is the one commodity that is given to everyone equally. Time always passes with the same fixed speed, but it seems that people are always short of time. Time management is the act or process of planning and exercising conscious control over the amount of time spent on specific activities, especially to increase effectiveness, efficiency or productivity. This is to say that time management is important for everyone, because it deals with planning, exercising conscious use of time, organizing ones way of life and improve all organizational activities. Philpot (2011), posited that In order to make more efficient and effective use of your time, you must be able to plan for the future and prioritize the present. Furthermore, time management books and seminars often place their focus on business leaders and corporations, it is also crucial for student teachers, factory workers, professionals, and home makers (Buck et al 2000). In line with, Altaf and Awan (2011), among recent sociologists have shown that the way workers view time is connected to social issues such as the institution of family, gender roles, and the amount of labor by the individual. Meanwhile, Mitchell and Samms (2010) description of time management, individuals first determine their needs and wants and then rank them in terms of importance.
Abd-el-Aziz, (2012) prostrated that time management is a set of certain skills and methods to achieve targets, goals and objective such as setting goals, analyzing, allocating and organizing the available time. No matter the skills employees posses there will always be more to do than employees can ever accomplish with the time available to organization. While Adebisi, (2013). State that in spite of its high significance, organizations do not treat time management as essential ingredient of survival. Time management is now taken as a separate field of study and it has become imperative for the organizations to hire consultants to teach employees how they can better employ their time. Some organizations now arrange time management workshops and seminars that are quite helpful for the employees to better manage their time Abd-el Aziz, (2012). In agreement with, Ugwu (2008) Time management involves skills like planning, organizing, implementing, and controlling. It is organizing and executing around priorities. In time management, things which matter most should never be at the mercy of things which matter least. Focus on the truly important things even if they are not urgent activities.
Plan, according to organizational goals, mission, roles, and priorities. In genesis 1, during the creation of world God planned everything one after the other and after each creation, he approved of it before going into another. He did that for six days, he did thorough planning, and there was no mistake. Therefore, there is need for constant evaluation of how worker use their time in an organization, and there must always be room for improvement on how workers spend their time. Time log could be of good help to employees. What then is time log? Time log is a guide on how employees should spends their time, it is a check on employees’ movement and also a monitoring device. This is just like a scale of preference where organization lists their goals according to it s order of priority, and take them one after the other.
This study is focused specifically on time management. The researcher wants to examine the influence of time management on employees’ performance in selected firm in Enugu to know whether employees can or cannot maintain their current performance within the restricted time frame given under various circumstances.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The problem associated with time management and its effect on employees’ performance is as a result of; lack of plan and vision, lack of focus on the first things- priorities and poor time management in an organization.
In an organization most individuals and managers of organizations lack the ability to plan subsequently and also they lose the vision of the organization which results to the failure of every individuals and the organization as a whole. It is a known fact that failing to plan is planning to fail; planning and managing our time led us to our vision.
Lack of focus on the first things first-priorities is another big challenge being faced by so many organizations. First things first’ means being clear about your priorities and acting on them. When organizations fail to work on first things priorities then it will lead them to deviate from the original plan of such organization and this affect the level of their performance. Many employees and managers unconsciously fall into the trap of getting caught up in non-important things. They neglect the larger life priorities until it becomes too late to act on them. To become a master of time employees and managers need to first be aware of their priorities in the larger context of organizational life.
Another problem that could lead to the downfall of an organization is poor time management. Majority of organizations are unable to properly manage their time. Every organization desire to increase their productivity but if managers are underperforming and /or unable to properly manage time them will not have the ability to increase their employee’s performance and productivity. In most cases the adaption of time management is usually difficult to form as a habit. Since time management is an essential ingredient for success, employees and managers need to learn proper utilization of time to achieve the set of goals and objectives of the organization.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of the study is to examine the effect of time management on employees’ performance at Michelle laboratory , Enugu. And the specific objectives are to:
(i) To ascertain the extent to which a relationship exist between planning and employees’ performance.
(ii) To assess the influence of poor time management on employees’ performance.
(iii) To highlight the extent to which the first things-priorities enhances employees’ performance.
1.4 Research Question
The research questions stated below are formulated based on the statement of problem and objectives of the study.
In line with the research questions the following hypotheses were formulated to guide the study.
1.6 Significance of the study
Given the fact that this study is timely because organizations have been yearning for Innovation that will enable them enhance productivity, minimize cost and maximize profit, the findings will be significant to: organisations, employees and students at large.
The scope of this study covers effect of time management on employees’ performance using Michelle laboratory Ltd, Enugu as a case study.
This research is limited on the study of Michelle laboratory, Enugu as a result of the following factors: the employees at first thinks that the outcome of the questionnaires will be used against them in the aspect of them giving negative answers and in which, the management might take it up with them. So it takes a lot of convincing for them to be able to give reliable and accurate answers.
Another aspect is time constraints, the management is always complaining about not having time to answer the questionnaires. But due to this factor, the researcher resolve to questionnaires and nonetheless, a lot of pleading was made before they can actually answered the questionnaires.
1.9 The Profile of the Organization Used Operational Place of Study
Michelle Laboratories limited is a private company, limited by share under the federal republic of Nigeria company Act of 1968. The company started its operation on 2nd day of July 1979, as evidenced on its certificate of incorporation No.29353.
In its Memorandum and articles of association, the registered office of the company is in Nigeria, with its operational base at plot 23, block 2, thinker corner industrial layout, Enugu, Enugu state.
Among other lawful business dealings, the company carries out the manufacturing and sale of pharmaceutical products under the name of CIKA Michelle laboratories is registered with Pharmaceutical Council of Nigeria (PCN),National Agency for Food, Drug Administration and Control(NAFDAC)under the supervision of Sir Pharm. Christian Chukwuelozie Atuegwu, the chairman, managing director and superintendent pharmacist.
From legally importing pharmaceutical products, we now manufacture in our factory a wide range of products amongst which are capsules, tablets and powders in the antibiotic, vitamins, etc.
Due to diligence, dedication, commitment to excellence of staff and management, and support from numerous customers nationwide, the company is ranked as one of the fastest growing pharmaceutical manufacturing companies in Nigeria known for quality products that meet international standard at prices that offer real value. Our products are widely distributed. Our commitment is to produce and deliver flawless products on time and every time. There is always our company’s representative nearer to you to guarantee good services at your doorstep.
Michelle laboratories limited, with her founder has strong management team comprising of accomplished professionals who excelled in both their academic and professional career.
1.10 Definition of Terms
It is the act or process of planning and exercising conscious control over the amount of time spent on specific activities, especially to increase effectiveness, efficiency or productivity.
The term time can be seen to mean a measure or yardstick of seconds, minutes, hours, and years. It can also be referred to as the period during which action or a process continues. Time is therefore irreversible successive and transitive. Time cannot be changed; neither can it be physically stopped, compressed, expanded or ever recorded. (Shaibu, Ogwuche, G. Mbaegbu, R.E.V, 2012)
Employee An individual who provides labour to a company or another person.
The free online business dictionary defines this as the accomplishment of a given task measured against preset known standards of accuracy, completeness, cost, and speed. In this study, performance is deemed to be the fulfillment of an obligation, in a manner that releases the performer from all liabilities under the contract.
According to business dictionary, define employee performance as a job related activities expected of a worker and how well those activities were execute