THE PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF SOCIAL MARKETING IN NIGERIA MANUFACTURING ORGANISATION
The aim of this research work is to appraise “problems and prospects of social marketing in Nigeria manufacturing organization. The objectives of this research work include the following; to investigate whether the Nigerian manufacturing sectors have an in-depth knowledge of social marketing practice. To investigate the problems encountered by Nigerian manufacturing sector in their social marketing sector.
For a successful completion of this researcher made use of both primary and secondary methods of data collection for information gathering. Primary data were collected through questionnaire administration, oral interview, and personal observation.
Secondary data were collected through periodicals and journals, textbooks and lecture note, books and internet. The data collected were presented in table and analyzed with simple percentages while the hypotheses stated were tested with chi square. The summary of findings made by the researcher includes the following:- the Nigerian manufacturing sector has an in-depth knowledge of social marketing practice. The marketing programs adopted by Nigerian manufacturing sector in their social marketing practice are effective. The researcher recommends that the Nigerian manufacturing sector should critically study the diverse strategies of social marketing to increase knowledge on the concept. Based on the research work and the findings above, the researcher therefore, concludes that social marketing draws a highly targeted segment of internet users to visit a business or website.
This can be done by using the various parameters elements and tools on social media websites, enabling one to increase visibility of the content on both a local and global level.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Cover page - - - - - - - - i
Title page - - - - - - - - ii
Dedication - - - - - - - - iii
Acknowledgment - - - - - - - iv
Abstract - - - - - - - - v
Table of content - - - - - - - vi
1.1 Background of study - - - - - 1
1.2 Statement of the problem - - - - - 3
1.3 Objective of the study - - - - - 4
1.4 Research question - - - - - - 5
1.6 Significance of the study - - - - - 7
1.7 Definition of terms - - - - - - 8
2.1 Overview of social marketing - - - - 9
2.2 The three levels of social marketing - - - 11
2.3 Characteristics of social marketing - - - 14
2.4 Roles of social marketing - - - - - 19
2.5 Problems of social marketing - - - - 21
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research design - - - - - - 27
3.2 Source of data - - - - - - 27
3.2.1 Primary sources - - - - - - 27
3.2.2 Secondary sources - - - - - - 27
3.3 Population of study - - - - - - 28
3.4 Determination of sample size - - - - 28
3.5 Instrumentation - - - - - - 29
3.6 Sampling techniques - - - - - - 30
3.7 Validity and reliability of the measuring instrument - 30
3.8 Method of data analysis - - - - - 30
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Data presentation - - - - - - 32
4.2 Testing of hypothesis - - - - - 42
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary of findings - - - - - - 50
5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - 51
5.3 Recommendations - - - - - - 52
References - - - - - - - - 53
Appendix - - - - - - - - 55
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Social marketing according to Onyeke and Nebo (2003) is the systematic application of marketing, along with other concepts and techniques, to achieve specific behavioural goals. Social marketing can be applied to promote merit goods, or to make a society avoid demerit goods and thus promote society well being as a whole. Examples of social marketing include the use of campaigns to encourage people to use seat belts, follow speed limits, or not to smoke in public.
The primary aim of social marketing is “social good” while in “commercial marketing” the aim is primarily “financial”. This does not mean that commercial marketers cannot contribute to achievement of social good.
Increasingly, social marketing is being described as having two parents- social parent; including social science and social policy approaches, and marketing parent; including commercial and public sector marketing approaches (Kotler and Armstrong, 2003)
Ifezue (2009) noted that social marketing has two defining features.
A drawing concerned with developing robust understanding and insight into the customer and a clear focus on achieving and sustaining specific measurable behaviours associated with promoting a social good.
However, it is increasingly recognized by Onyeke (2008) that social marketing can and should be applied at the policy level for example rather than assuring a mass media campaign required, it is helpful to use marketing which seeks to inform policy formulation and strategy development.
Strategic social marketing seeks to examine all of the potential interventional options and assess them based on what customer insight indicates which would be most beneficial and effective in terms of a programme of action.
Social marketers find that they have somewhat inadequate good secondary data about their consumers, more problems obtaining valid and reliable measures of relevant variables, more difficulty sorting out the relative influence of determinants of consumer behaviour, and more problems getting consumer research funded than marketer in the commercial sector. They tend to have less flexibility in shaping their products and in formulating product concepts. Problems associated with establishing, utilizing and controlling distribution channels comprises another major difference between social and more conventional forms of marketing. Berkowitz, Roger and William (2007) also noted that social marketers also find out that their communication options are somewhat limited as a result of problems associated with the use of paid advertisements. Also, pressures are on them not to use certain types of appeals in their messages, and the need to communicate large amounts of information in their messages. More so, social marketing must function as organizations where marketing activities are poorly understood, underappreciated and inappropriately located. Finally, they face problems trying to define effective measures or estimating the contribution their program has made towards the achievement of certain objectives. These enumerated problems affect the ability of a marketing organization to adequately satisfy its customers which invariably impact on their patronage. It is in view of this that the study is focus on the problems and prospects of social marketing in Nigeria manufacturing organizations.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Ineffective design and implementation of marketing programs aimed at increasing or enhancing the acceptability of a social idea or practice in a target group is a major problem associated with social marketing concept in Nigerian manufacturing sector.
This makes it difficult for them to increase individual and societal well-being. Lack of in-depth understanding of social marketing by its practitioners in the manufacturing sector makes its adoption difficult and it also ends up not achieving its aims in aiding in the marketing of diverse goods and services.
Also the adoption of ineffective tools in the social marketing practice affects its practice by Nigerian manufacturing sector.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The broad objective of this research study is to investigate the problems and prospects of social marketing in Nigerian manufacturing organization.
The specific objectives include the following;
1. To investigate whether the Nigerian manufacturing sector has an in-depth knowledge of social marketing practice.
2. To investigate the problems encountered by Nigerian manufacturing sector in their social marketing practice.
3. To examine whether the Nigerian manufacturing sector has effective secondary data on its target market for efficient social marketing practice.
4. To investigate the effect of social marketing as practiced by Nigerian manufacturing sector on its patronage.
5. To examine the effect of marketing research on the social marketing practice of Nigerian manufacturing sector.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following research questions are formulated for the purpose of this research study:
1. Does the Nigerian manufacturing sector have an in-depth knowledge of social marketing practice?
2. Are the marketing programs adopted by Nigerian manufacturing sector to their social marketing practice effective?
3. Does the Nigerian manufacturing sector have effective secondary data on its target market for efficient social marketing practiced?
4. Does the social marketing practice of Nigerian manufacturing sector have effect on its patronage?
5. Does marketing research have effect on the social marketing practice of Nigerian manufacturing sector?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The following research hypotheses are formulated for the purpose of this research study.
HO. The Nigerian manufacturing sector does not have an in-depth knowledge of social marketing practice.
H1: The Nigerian manufacturing sector has an in-depth knowledge of social marketing practice.
HO: The marketing programs adopted by Nigerian manufacturing sector in their social marketing practice are not effective.
H1: The marketing programs adopted by Nigerian manufacturing sector in their social marketing practice are effective.
HO: The social marketing practice of Nigerian manufacturing sector has no impact on its patronage.
H1: The social marketing practice of Nigerian manufacturing sector has impacts on its patronage.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This research study will be of immense significance to the following groups of people.
The management and staff of diverse firms in the Nigerian manufacturing industry. It will go to a great extent in enlightening them on the concepts of social marketing as well as the diverse problems encountered in the practice or use of social marketing. It will also broaden their view on the prospects of this marketing concept. The general populace will as well benefit from this research study in that they will not just be enlightened on the concepts of social marketing but will also be enlightened on the roles it play in the marketing of diverse goods and services.
Finally, students and researchers will as well benefit from this study. They will widen their scope from the information contained in this research study.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study on the problems and prospects of social marketing in Nigerian manufacturing organization is focused on Innoson Technical Company, Enugu and Emenite PLC, Enugu which are manufacturing firms in Enugu state.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
MARKETING: This is a total system of business activities designed to plan, promote and distribute want satisfying products to target market to achieve organizational objectives.
SOCIAL MARKETING: This is the systematic application of marketing, along with other concepts and techniques, to achieve specific behavioural goals for a social good.