The Effect Of Temperature On Hydrolysis Of Cellulose (saw-dust)

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ABSTRACT
The effect of concentration of hydrochloric acid on hydrolysis of cellulose (saw-dust) to glucose was studied on this research project and the steps obtained to achieve this project involved treatment of saw-dust (cellulose) with different concentrations of the acid at constant temperature of 80°𝐶 (350k) for 30mins. This was followed by glucose analysis, some analysis or experiments were done on acid hydrolysis in order to study the effect of (HCL) acid on the hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose. The process used in this hydrolysis was acid hydrolysis in which HCL acid was used at constant temperature of 80oC and the saw-dust used [was obtained by grinding wood with saw] was weighed and mixed with water . Secondly, during this analysis/experiment, it was observed that hydrochloric acid hydrolyzed well from the readings gotten from each result that was carried out during the analysis. Then lastly, glucose analysis was carried out to determine the absorbance and glucose concentration. It was noticed that the best concentration of HCL acid during hydrolysis yields glucose concentration of 0.127g or 1.270%.
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TABLE OF CONTENT
CHAPTER ONE
1.1 Introduction .............................................................. 1
1.2 Definition of Terms ..................................................... 3
1.3 Statement of the Problem ............................................. 4
1.4 Scope and of Study Limitations .................................... 5
1.5 Objectives .................................................................... 6
CHAPTER TWO
2.1 Literature Review .................................................. 8
2.2 History ........................................................ 9
2.3 Products ........................................................... 10
2.4 Cellulose Source and Energy Store of Crops. .............. 12
2.5 Structure and Properties ........................................... 14
2.6 Biosynthesis ............................................................ 18
2.7 Breakdown (Cellucolysis). ............................................ 22
2.8 Hemicellulose ......................................... 24
2.9 Derivatives .................................................................. 24
2.10 Functionality ..................................... 29
2.11 Occurrences .............................................................. 30
2.12 Classification of Cellulose .......................................... 31
2.12.1 Cellulose Acetate. ...................................................... 32
2.12.2 Cellulose Acetate Butyrate. ........................................ 32
2.12.3 Cellulose Nitrate. ...................................................... 33
2 12 .4 Methyl Cellulose.- ..................................................... 34
2.12.5 Ethyl Cellulose. ......................................................... 34
2.12.6 Carboxy Methyl Cellulose. ........................................ 35
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2.13 Regenerated Cellulose. ................................................ 36
2.14 Uses of Sugar. ........................................................... 38
2.15 Sugar in Foods .......................................................... 40
2.16 Functions of Sugar. ..................................................... 40
2.17 Natural Polymers of Sugar. ........................................ 41
2.18 Types of Sugar. .......................................................... 42
CHAPTER THREE
3.1 Materials and Equipment .......................................... 46
3.1.1 Materials: .................................................................... 46
3.1.2 Apparatus: ................................................................ 46
3.1.3 Reagent ................................................................ 47
3.2 Acid Hydrolysis (Hcl) .................................................. 48
3.2.1 Procedure: ................................................................. 48
3.2.2 Glucose Analysis Colorimetric (Using Benedict’s) Method. 49
3.2.3 Procedure: ................................................................. 50
The Glucose Concentration (Hcl) Was Determined Using Beer Lambat Law. ...................................................... 50
CHAPTER FOUR
Results and Discussion
4.1 Results ................................................................... 52
4.2 Discussion ................................................................. 53
CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation ............................... 55
5.1 Conclusion ................................................................ 55
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5.2 Recommendation ............................................................ 56
References ................................................................................ 58
Appendix A ............................................................................... 60
Appendix B............................................................................... 61
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LIST OF TABLES
Table 4.1: variation of absorbance with the standard glucose concentration
Table 4.1.2: variation of absorbance with hydrochloric acid
LIST OF FIGURE
Figure 4.1: graph of absorbance of the acid against the glucose concentration.
Figure 4.2: Cellulose
Figure 4.3: Strand of Cellulose
Figure 4.4: Triple strand of Cellulose.
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CHAPTER ONE
1.1 Introduction
Cellulose is the name given to a long chain of atoms consisting of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen arranged in a particular manner it is a naturally occurring polymeric material containing thousands of glucose-like rings each of which contain three alcoholic OH groups. Its general each of which contain three alcoholic OH groups. Its general formula is represented as (C6H1005)n. the oh-groups present in cellulose can be esterifies or etherified, the most important cellulose derivatives are the esters.
Cellulose is found in nature in almost all forms of plant life’s, and especially in cotton and wood. A cellulose molecule is made up of large number of glucose units linked together by oxygen atom. Each glucose unit contains three(3) hydroxyl groups, the hydroxyl groups present at carbon-6 is primary, while two other hydroxyl are secondary. Cellulose is the most abundant organic chemical on earth more than 50% of the carbon is plants occurs in the cellulose of stems and leave wood is largely cellulose, and cotton is more than 90% cellulose. It is a major constituent of plant cell walls that
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provides strength and rigidity and presents the swelling of the cell and rupture of the palms membrane that might result when osmotic conditions favor water entry into the cell. Cellulose is a fibrous, ought, water-insoluble substances, it can be seen in cell walls of plants, particularly in stalks, stems, trunks and all woody portions of the plant.
Cellulose is polymorphic, i.e there are number of different crystalline forms that reflect the history of the molecule. It is almost impossible to describe cellulose chemistry and biochemistry without referring to those different forms. Cellulose are gotten from cellulose, cellulose is also found in protozoa in the gut of insects such as termites. Very strong acids can also degrade cellulose, the human digestive system has little effect on cellulose. The world cellulose means β-1, 4- D glucan, regardless of source because of the importance of cellulose and difficulty in unraveling its secrets regarding structure, biosynthesis, chemistry, and other aspects, several societies are dedicated to cellulose, lignin, and related molecues.
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1.2 Definition of Terms
Hydrolysis: means hydro (water) lysis (splitting) or breaking down of a chemical bond by the addition of water (H2O), it is by the introduction of the elements that make up water hydrogen and oxygen. The reactions are more complicated than just adding water to a compound, but by the end of a hydrolysis reaction, there will be two more hydrogen’s and one more oxygen shared between the products, than there were before the reaction occurred.
Hydrolysis of cellulose therefore is the process of breaking down the glucosidic bonds that holds the glucose basic units together to term a large cellulose molecule, it is a term used to describe the overall process where cellulsose is converted into various sweeteners.
Sugar: is the generalized name for a class of chemically related sweet – flavored substances, most of which are used as food. They are carbohydrates, composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. There are various sugar derived from different sources. Simple sugars are called monosaccharide’s and include glucose cellos known as dextrose, fructose and galactose. The table or granulated
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sugar most customarily used as food is sucrose, a disaccharide other disacclarides include maltose and lacoose. Chemically-different substances may also have a sweet taste, but are not classified as sugar but as artificial sweeteners.
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The new government policies and economy through low quality products has imposed motivated researchers to explore the numerous domestic, industrial and economic importance of the Nigeria’s major waste product which is “cellulose” which forms the bedrock of this project.
Sugar is a high demand for both domestic and industrial applications on daily basis in homes, small and medium scale industries etc this is why Nigeria government spends huge sums of money on importation of sugar and sugar products to meet the demand of citizens. Among the many processes of sugar production, is acid hydrolysis of (cellulose) has proved to be a process which encourages the production of high quality with minimum skill and
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materials. This work is therefore an effort to encourage industrialist, researchers, and students to carry out more intensive studies on production of sugar from cellulose for production of sugar and enhanced economic resources for the nation.

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