COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION IN THE RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN ENUGU STATE. (A CASE STUDY OF AKEDGBU IN NKANU WEST L.G.A)
The study evaluate the community participation in the rural development through selected community based organization (C.B.O) “A case study of Akebeugwu in Nkanu West Local Government area of Enugu state.” The main objective of the study includes: To know the impact of these association on community development, to draw a comparative analysis between modern cooperative and community development, to know the impact of these association on community development, to draw a comparative analysis between modern cooperative and community development association, to know their participation in political socio-cultural and economic development, to know the level of efficiency and effectiveness in project execution, identify some of the problems associated with the associations in question and suggest ways of solving these problems based in the study findings. In pursuance of the above objectives. Both primary and secondary data sources were obtained using structured and unstructured questionnaire and review of related literature. Data generating from the field were carefully analyzed, using appropriate statistical tools. The major findings of the study include the following; that, no development association are formed without objectives, that all the development associations are working towards the same goal, that is the enhancement of development projects and maintenance of law and order, and major problems facing these associations were lack of financial and management problems. Based on the findings of the study the researcher made fifteen (15) point recommendations on how best to maximize the services of community development association, towards the improvement of rural communities in Akebeugwu in Nkanu West Local Government area in particular and Enugu state in general.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page i
Approval page ii
Table of content vi
1.1 Background of the study 1
1.2 Statement of the problem 2
1.3 Objectives of the study 5
1.4 Significance of the study 7
1.5 Research question 7
1.6 Research Hypothesis 8
1.7 Scope and limitation of the study 10
1.8 Definition of terms 11
2.0 Review of related literature 16
2.1 Concept of community development 17
2.2 Rural development in Akegbeugwu L.G.A 22
2.3 The community participation in the rural development 23
2.4 Comparative analysis between community development association and modern cooperative 34
2.5 Problem associated with community development 36
2.6 Government roles towards promoting these association 38
3.0 Research design and methodology 45
3.1 Research design 45
3.2 Area of the study 45
3.3 Population of the study 46
3.4 Sampling size and sampling technique 47
3.5 Sources of data 50
3.6 Data collection methods/Instrument Used 51
3.7 Design and administration of research instrument 51
3.8 statistical techniques used in Data analysis 52
4.0 Data presentation analysis and interpretation 54
4.1 presentation 54
4.2 Testing of hypothesis 66
5.0 Summary of findings , Conclusion and Recommendation 73
5.1 Summary of findings 73
5.2 Conclusion 76
5.3 Recommendations 80
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Prior to the advert of modern co-operatives into Africa Nigeria in particular, there were numerous forms of co-operations or associations already in existence which had been established based on community development as well other conscientious activity. These primitive unions are usually being established either to preserve and perhaps make people adhere to the culture of the land.
Very often these associations served as a platform through which people will come together in unity, with a view to assist and enhance their standard of living. Evidently, the arrival of modern cooperative along with its principles have been able to enlighten the communities on cooperation by which many change could be achieved.
Today, despite the prevalent presence of modern co-operatives, these community development association are still effective and remain resilient to changes come what may.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
The specific problems of this research is proposed to solve how to use intensive basic literacy and dialogue to guide the community at the rural base, identify causes of their low socio-economic status, and how to guide them to identify appropriate to these problems.
1. Generally, high percentage of community is illiterate peasant farmers who have little knowledge of modern farm improvements, processing and preservation of farm outputs. These community require education and training and credit facilities to improve their productivity organize themselves into small groups to engage in small – scale enterprises to enable them improve their socio-economic status and hence alleviate their poverty and improve their family living conditions.
2. Some of the community development plans are capital intensive and these associations do not have enough fund to carry them out. So this becomes a threat to their plans and development.
3. Over 60% of the community development members participations are uneducated and this makes it difficult for the new educated one to sell their ideal to the illiterate one.
4. Most of members are apathetic towards the development plans of the community this normally kills the morals of interested members.
5. It could be spotted out that some community development associations have individualistic tendencies. They are also conservation in nature.
6. Due to either nonchalant attitude of some leaders or inadequate record keeping, funds are not used and such distort the accomplishment of the set objective.
These problems have been identified through direct dialogue and observation of community conditions and through critical discussions with community leaders and the community at the grassroots levels.
Considering all the identified problems of the community, low income and low productivity as result of illiteracy and poverty have been highly identified. This requires direct participation of community with commitment for effective combat of these problems. As such, it is very necessary that community understand the reasoning that makes it difficult to meet these needs so that they can fight against it.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is to know the community participation in the rural development in Akegbeugwu in Enugu State. The purpose of the research is designed specifically to:
1. Evaluate the community participation in the rural development of Akegbeugwu in Nkanu Wes LGA of Enugu State.
2. Access the impact of these associations on participation in rural development change in our communities.
3. Eradicate illiteracy and poverty at the grassroots through basic literacy, training, education, self –help group formation and credit facilities.
4. Enable community be at the centre of sustainable development through supporting innovative development activities improvement of agricultural yield, processing of food crops, engaging in small scale enterprises. It will enable the community to increase their income, become fully employed and minimize their poverty.
5. Draw comparative analysis between modern co-operative and community development associations.
6. Know their participations in political, socio-culture and economic development.
7. To know their level of efficiently and effectives in project execution
8. Identify some of the problem associated with community development association.
9. Suggest ways of solving this problems based on the study findings.
10. Evaluate the activities/projects of this research so as to determine their sustenance and to ensure that community at the grassroots benefit maximally from the programmes with the spirit of co-operation and collective effort.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study has numerous benefits as most students will find it particularly useful in understanding of the crucial position occupied by these community development association in development process. The research could now proffer practical recommendations, having been acquainted with the diverse challenges in carrying out their roles. It will be vital to anybody who may wish to do research or other wise.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTION
Arising from the statement of the study problems the researcher is compelled to ask the following question.
i. What are the main objectives of establishing community development association?
ii. To what extent have community participated in the rural development of our communities?
iii.What are the problems militating against effective attainment of community development association objective in our rural areas?
iv.What strategies are requires to over come these problems?
v. How does these associations raise funds for financing their development project?
1.6 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
Ho: The communities do not participate in the rural development of Akegbeugwu in Nkanu West L.G.A of Enugu State.
Hi: The communities participate in the rural development of Akegbeugwu in Nkanu West LGA of Enugu State.
Ho: There is no problem militating against effective attainment of community development association objectives in our rural areas.
Hi: There are so many problems militating against effective attainment of community development association objectives in our rural areas.
Ho: There is no difference between the mean score of community leaders on the extent of supporting innovative development activities influence the economic base of Akegbeugwu community living condition.
Hi: There is significant difference between the mean score of community leaders on the extent of supporting innovative development activities influence the economic base of Akegbeugwu community living condition.
Hi the association impact on the development change in our communities.
The association do not impact on the development change in our communities.
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
This study is fashioned to state the community participation in the rural development using selected cooperative society in Akegbeugwu in Nkanu West LGA of Enugu State.
Akegbeugwu is the oldest in Awkuananw. It is made up of six (6) autonomous communities with traditional rulers in each of the communities in Akegbeugwu
Cooperative societies in Akegbeugwu in Nkanu West Local Government Area in Enugu State was established in December 20th 1979, many societies were registered. Their major occupation is thrift, loan societies, trading and subsistence farming.
Nkanu West local government area is one of the seventeen (17) local government area, which made up of Enugu state.
Akegbeugwu is made up of six (6) communities: Attakwu, Umuokwuo, Umuatugbu, Amigbo, Obeghe and Amagu.
It is meant for the entire populace of Akegbeugwu and thus, sample both literature and illiterate ones (through Akegbeugwu interview) in other to get a comprehensive and reliable responses to facilitate the achievement of the objective of this work. Due to certain problems associated with some respondents include illiteracy, inferiority complex and intellectual dishonesty, the researcher was unable to gather some relevant information which would have made the study 100%.
1.8 DEFINITION OF THE TERMS
COMMUNITY: It can be defined according to oxford advance learner’s dictionary 6th edition. As all people who live in a participative area of the country. Community can also be defined as a territorially bounded social system within which people live harmony, love, intimacy and share common social, economic and cultural characteristics.
It is also defined as a population living within legally established city limits where the people have some social and economic features in common which enable them to pursue common goals.
DEVELOPMENT: According to oxford advanced leaner dictionary the 6th edition, defined development as the gradual growth of something, so that it becomes more advance and stronger.
According to Ibeanu (1988) He see it as referring to the level of productive force. It is been refers to the level of control which members of a given society have been able to established over their natural environment:
i. On the level of understanding of the laws of nature which they have achieved (science).
ii. Their ability to use this understanding to devise and impose upon the tools of production (technology)
iii. The manner in which work and rewards are organized. Mr. Lee grant UNO secretary general in (1962) during the production of the decade of development defined development as thus: development is growth plus change. The secretary general inform that development means Quantitative as well as qualitative inputs in other wards, development goes beyond increase in income per capital on financial side of people lives. It include changes in institutional, social and administrative structure as well as social behaviour and attitudes of people including sometimes the people customs and beliefs.
DEVELOPMENT: Can also be defined as the satisfaction and continuous improvement of the basic needs of people and the maintenance of the environment: By basic needs, we mean: employment, food, shelter (housing), heath, education, water, electricity, transport and communications.
COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT: According to UNO (1962) The term community development has come into international usage to connote the process by the efforts of people themselves are the economic, social and cultural conclusions of communities to integrate those communities into the life of the nation and to enable them participate fully to national progress.
According to Anyanwu (1981) sees community development as education in the fullest and best sense for the stimulation of the desire for better things and the urge to attain such better things. Community development according to him “strives to educate and motivate people for self help” with a view to developing responsible local leadership among them, as well as inculcating in them a sense of citizenship and a spirit of civil consciousness”
According to E.E Ogili (2004) defined community development as organized efforts of people to improve the conditions of community life and the capacity of the people for participation self – direction and integrated effort in community affairs.
RURAL: According to Oyide (1988) “He says that a rural area is seen as one community where the inhabitant are living as close as possible to nature without environmental Pollution, human abuse, violence and crime associated with the urban centers.