USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL
1.1 Background of the study
According to the trend and research in educational technology in Nigeria, written by Imogie I. (ed) 1991. An Instructional material is the materials that add beauty to teaching. It is the material and equipment, specimen and objects that make teaching and learning to be more effective. Instructional material is the material that makes the lesson really practical.
In addition, to practicalise the lesson, the use of instructional material makes teaching and learning process more interesting and easier.
Instructional materials can be used at the beginning of the lesson to arouse the students’ interest toward some expected goals.
Furthermore, Instructional material is regarded as the sequential arrangement of materials and equipment for a specific learning environment which is targeted towards bringing about available learning/teaching outcome in the recipient.
It is viewed that Instructional materials in teaching and learning of Integrated Science provides opportunity for effective learning by students and it also increase their chances of building insight in their ways of life.
It helps the teacher to cover the syllabus on time and also help in easing problems in the teaching and learning process.
Besides, it involves planning the content to confirm with definite scopes and sequence. It includes motivating students and the use of lesson presentation strategies for optimum teaching and learning benefits.
These Instructional materials are divided into three as follows:
· Audio Visual
i. Visual materials: as the name implies could be referred to as the type of Instructional materials that are seen practically. These materials ease teaching and learning in schools and colleges.
Visual materials are materials that convey information through the sense of sight. They can therefore be seen and touched. They include, charts, photographs, pictures, posters, maps, specimen, diagram, coins, ball, black board e.t.c.
ii. Audio materials: these are the materials that we can see them but cannot feel them. These are teaching materials that convey information through the sense of hearing. They are called auditory materials because of their sound characteristics.
These materials includes the radio, record, players,
gramophone, drums,whistles, audio tape e.t.c
iii. Audio–Visual material: these are those materials that combine auditory and visual characteristics to convey information. They thereby communicate through the ear and eye. Some of them can also be called multi-media. Example of these kinds of aid include films (with sound), television, sound projector e.t.c.
In addition to these technological advances has also come along way to include video cassettes of some topic in subjects taught in schools were recorded and can be replayed for the students.
Learner analysis identifies those characteristics of the learner that will influence the selection of instructional materials and activities. Learner characteristics are the result of genetics, development of personality, motivation, and adaptation to the environment. Most of these characteristics are neither good nor bad and some learners will possess a given characteristic to a high degree, some to a moderate degree and some not at all.
Physiological characteristics that affect learning include obvious aspects like blindness, deafness, inability to use arms or legs. Also important are characteristics like preference for working in well-lighted vs dimly lighted environments, preference for learning at certain time of the day, need for mobility, tactile stimulation, kinesthetic learning, amount of sound in the environment, and the like.
Of affective characteristics, motivation is perhaps the most important. Learners are motivated by a variety of things -- whether they like to work in groups or alone, whether they prefer spelled-out instructions or prefer unstructured tasks.
Many student learning style instruments exist. Some examples of the dimensions considered by these instruments include:
Generally, it is recommended that educators attempt to individualize instruction on the basis of learner characteristics and directed to a learner's strengths, although learners should also be encouraged to strengthen areas of secondary preference.
1.3 INSTRUCTIONAL DESIGN
Instructional Design is the practice of creating instructional tools and content to help facilitate learning most effectively. The process consists broadly of determining the current state and needs of the learner, defining the end goal of instruction, and creating some innovation to assist in the transition. Ideally the process is informed by pedagogically tested theories of learning and may take place in student-only, teacher-led or community-based settings. The outcome of this instruction may be directly observed and scientifically measured or completely hidden and assumed.
As a field, instructional design is historically and traditionally rooted in cognitive and behavioral psychology. However, because it is not a regulated, well-understood field, the term 'instructional design' has been co-opted by or confused with a variety of other ideologically-based and / or professional fields. Instructional design, for example, is not graphic design, although graphic design (from a cognitive perspective) could play an important role in Instructional Design.
1.4 PURPOSE OF STUDY
The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which Instructional materials are used in the effective teaching and learning of Integrated Science.
Identify some basic influential instinct of Instructional materials in the teaching and learning of Integrated Science.
Access the extent to which students have the opportunity exposed to them in the use of Instructional materials in the teaching and learning of integrated science.
Analyze the problems facing the use of Instructional materials and the cost of producing these items.
Determine the technical quality of the instructional materials use in the teaching and learning of integrated science.
This is with view to make necessary recommendation based on the study for improving the standard of Instructional materials used in the teaching and learning of Integrated Science.
1.5 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
This work tends to assess the over all use of Instructional materials in the effective teaching and learning of Integrated Science. The following problems are to be investigated.
üDoes the use of instructional material make teaching and learning of integrated science effective?
üWhat roles do school authority play in the provision of Instructional materials in schools?
üWhat are the factors that influence the use of these instructional materials in the teaching and learning of Integrated Science?
üDoes lack of Instructional materials pose problems to the teaching and learning of Integrated Science?
üTo what extent are the quality and quantities of Instructional Materials used by the teachers in effective teaching and learning of Integrated Science?
1.6 SIGNIFICANT OF THE STUDY
The need for this study arouse as a result of poor performance of students associated with lack of standard Instructional materials and inadequate use of available instructional materials in the effective teaching and learning of Integrated Science.
Instructional materials ensures that the teacher provide his students with meaningful source of information that will enable them to solve problems and understanding concept.
It is also established that the use of Instructional Materials helps in clarity of ideas and providing members of the same class equal opportunity to benefit from the teaching / learning process. This also help to awaken the interest of the students and their desire wanting to learn more.
It has also made teaching and learning more immediate as it bridges the gap between the world outside and the world inside the classroom environment.
Instructional materials offer opportunities for learners to develop their ability and skills, supply concrete basis for conceptual thinking and promote the acquisition and longer retention of knowledge.
For the sake of the research work, the following questions are advanced:
1. Are there enough qualified teachers for the teaching and learning of integrated science in secondary school?
2. Do these teachers use instructional materials in teaching integrated science?
3. To what extent are the instructional materials available for teaching integrated science?
With the statement of problems based on the extent of use of instructional materials in the effective teaching and learning of Integrated Science, the following are the hypothesis worthy of formulation:
vStudents and teachers make appropriate use of Instructional Materials.
vInstructional Materials provide the students with ample opportunity to understand and long retained knowledge of integrated science.
vSome of the instructional materials used in teaching and learning of integrated science are of sub-standard quality.
vThere are insufficient instructional materials for teaching and learning of integrated science.
1.8 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is targeted on the Junior Secondary Schools in Aninri Local Government Area of Enugu state. The scope is also delimited on JssII integrated students and to find out the extent of use of instructional materials in the effective teaching and learning of Integrated science.
1.9 LIMITATION OF STUDY
A research of this Magnitude could have covered all the schools
Within the study area but this has been hampered by limited resources, such as time and fund.
However, generalization could be made since the sampled schools
have similar features as the other schools in the study areas.