A Graduate Seminar Report On Globally Convergent Modifications Ofnewtons Method

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The nutrient and anti nutrient levels of raw Samma leaves (Urtica Simensis) grown inrnEthiopia, specifically Deberebrhan, Fitche and Ambo were investigated using standardrnanalytical methods. The effect of boiling at different duration on nutri ent and anti nutrientrncontent of Samma leaves (Urtica Semens is) collected from Deberebrhan was alsorninvestigated. Samma leaves were boiled at 96°C ± 2 at different length of time such as 5min,rn10 min,15 min, 20 min, 25 min and 30 min and each raw samples and boiled samples werernanalysed for Proximate composition, Ascorbic Acid (vitamin C), Antinutrients (CondensedrnTannin and Oxalate), Minerals (Fe, Ca, Zn) and Sensory evaluation. The ranges of moisture,rncrude protein, crude fat, crude fibre and total ash in raw Samma (Urtica Simensis) leavesrncollected from the three areas were found to be 76.8-78.9 %, 25. 1-26.3 %, 2.2-2.3 %, 8.5-9.4rn% and 20.8-26.4 %, respectively. The values of crude fat, crude fibre and total ash reducedrnafter boiling with ranges of (2.3-0.55%, 8.47-7.51 %,25.4-15.9 %) and increased the moisturernand crude protein (78.9-89.09%, 26.3-30.95), respectively. The ranges of mineral contents ofrnraw Samma leaves (Urtica Simensis) of iron, zinc and calcium were 38.4-47.0, 2.87-5 .8 andrn768.6-793.4 mg/ IOOg, respectively and the values were reduced after boiling with ranges ofrn(42.3-29.2, 4.90-2.09, and 768.6-392.37-492.45%), respectivel y. Raw Samma leaves werernfound to be rich in vitamin C (82.65-84.3%). The percentage loss was very high for AscorbicrnAcid (vitamin C) when boiling time increases (90-100%). Raw Samma leaves also containedrnTannin (25.3-27.0 mg/I OOg) and oxalate (8.59- 9.33 mg/IOOg) and these values reduced afterrnboiling 25.3-9.0 in Tannin and 9.3-1.77 mg/IOOg in oxalate. The study showed that thesernindigenous leafy vegetable has high nutritive contents and their consumption need to bernpromoted in the various region of the country.rnKey Words: Urtica Simensis (Samma), Nutrient, Antinutrent, Boiling, Ascorbic Acidrn(Vitamin C), Oxalate, Tannin and Mineral.

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A Graduate Seminar Report On Globally Convergent Modifications Ofnewtons Method

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