Production Of Bar Soap

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PRODUCTION OF BAR SOAP

ABSTRACT

 The Production of Bar Soap is aimed at producing a cleansing agent which is capable of removing stains or dirt in man and his environment so as to reduce the population size of pathogenic micro-organisms. Soaps are salts of fatty acids. It is obtained by treating oils and fats with a strong alkaline solution. This brings about a chemical reaction called saponification, which is the mixture of alkali with fats to form crude soap. A mixture of the strong alkali solution (caustic soda) and water was poured into a bowl containing oil which stirred continuously until saponification occurred in the mixture. Then, other necessary ingredients were added to the mixture and was stirred to ensure thorough mixing of the solution. The mixture was poured into a mould and was allowed to cool and solidify. It was removed from the mould after solidification and was cut in bars. The product served the specific function of cleansing as it can be used domestically, industrially and otherwise to proffer hygiene good health and long lasting of objects.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page         -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       i

Certification    -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       ii

Dedication       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       iii

Acknowledgement   -       -       -       -       -       -       -       iv

Abstract  -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       v

Table of contents     -       -       -       -       -       -       -       vi

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0      Introduction    -       -       -       -       -       -       -       1

1.1      Background of the study        -       -       -       -       1

1.2      Aims of the study    -       -       -       -       -       -       4

1.3      Significance of the study         -       -       -       -       5

1.4      Statement of the Research problems      -       -       5

1.5      Limitations of study        -       -       -       -       -       7

1.6      Definition of terms -       -       -       -       -       -       7

CHAPTER TWO

2.1      Literature Review    -       -       -       -       -       -       9

2.2      Functions and uses of Bar Soap    -       -       -       14

2.3      Types of soap   -       -       -       -       -       -       -       16

2.4      Properties of soap    -       -       -       -       -       -       18

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0   Materials and methodology    -       -       -       -       21

3.1      Materials         -       -       -       -       -       -       -       21

3.2      Chemistry of soap production        -       -       -       22

3.3      Production procedure     -       -       -       -       -       23

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0      Results and Analysis      -       -       -       -       -       27

4.1      Results    -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       27

4.2      Chemical Analysis of soap      -       -       -       -       28

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0      Summary, Recommendation and conclusion        31

5.1      Summary        -       -       -       -       -       -       -       31

5.2      Recommendation    -       -       -       -       -       -       32

5.3      Conclusion      -       -       -       -       -       -       -       33

References       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       35

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE SUBJECT MATTER

Soap has been a product with over a 5000 years history. It has remained an essential ingredient in modern living. It is used daily for medicinal and for laundry purposes; for household cleansing and for personal hygiene. There is an ongoing demand for bar soap as a cleaning agent despite the rolls made by modern detergents and soap powders (Barthelemy, 1883).

Industrial manufactured bar soaps first became available in the late eighteenth century. This happened when advertising campaigns in Europe and the United States, promoted popular awareness of the relationship between cleanliness and health. Until recently, the production of bar soap remained a primitive art, its manufacture being essentially the treatment of fat with alkali, a chemical process which is the same whether the production is done in a backyard or in a factory. The simplicity of the process of production of soap has led to is world wide practice as a small business operation.

 

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