Analysis Of A Soap Product (lux)

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ANALYSIS OF A SOAP PRODUCT (LUX)

ABSTRACT

 

The soap that is used for the analysis is Lux.  The analytical tests carried out on the soap are moisture content and free caustic alkali.  For the determination of the moisture content, the materials and reagent that was used are:

i.        The Porcelain dish

ii.       Glass rod              and

iii.      Hot air oven

 

The reagents are:

i.        The petroleum spirit                and

ii.       Sodium acetate

 

For the determination of the free caustic alkali, the material and reagent that was used are:

a)       Beaker

b)      Clamand Stand conical flask

c)       Pipette Separating funnel

d)      95% ethanol

e)       Ph enophthalein indicator

f)       Barium chloride   and

g)       Hydrochloric acid

After the analysis, it was observed that the percentage of water content was 20%, while the free caustic alkali was 0 – 05%.  Also after the analysis, it was found that soap that contains high caustic alkali will cause rashes and irritation of the skin.  And the one that contain high moisture will now shrink and will not fume well.  The soap (Lux) Analysed will be used for washing and general removal of dirty.  It will also enhance removal of dirty.  It also reduces the surface tension, and serves to remove odour and greasy surfaces.

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Title page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of contents

 

CHAPTER   ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.1     AIM AND OBJECTIVES

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

1.3     HYPOTHESIS

1.4     SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY

1.5            LIMITATIONS

 

 

CHAPTER   TWO

2.0     LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES RELATED TO THE PROJECT

2.2     CLEANING ACTION OF SOAPS

 

CHAPTER   THREE

3.0     REAGENT AND MATERIALS

2.1     EQUIPMENT AND METHODS

 

CHAPTER   FOUR

4.0     RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     CONCLUSIONS

          REFERENCES

 

 

CHAPTER   ONE

 

1.0                                 INTRODUCTION

The analysis of soaps has become necessary by the desire to rationalize test procedures and thereby adequately provide, for the requirement contained in soap to make it work effectively.

Soaps are the sodium or potassium salt of long chain, fatty acids and are produced by saponification of fats and oils with alkalis e.g. potassium hydroxide.

Lux soap, which is used for bathing and laundry, for it to be satisfactory for consumpti0on, shall be free from objectionable odour both as received and in water solution; it should not contain/have any active chlorine or oxygen.  It should not have any active that shall not contain any visible foreign matter posses good.  Lathering and cleansing properties and should have no injurious effect on the skin.  Also it should contain low water content, no impurities, and very small excess alkali.

It is made by the action of a hot caustic solution on tallow or fatty oils, with the simultaneous formation of glycerol, which at one time, was wasted or left in the soap, as it is still certain, glycerol is a valuable by product.  The reaction is as follows:

          3NaOH  +  (C17 H35 COO)3  C3H5                3 C17 H35 COONa +

          Caustic       Triglyceride                                  sodium stearate

          Alkali                                                                             (soap)

          C3H5(oH)3

                   Glycerol

Soap can also be made by the action of caustic soda or fatty acid without producing glycerol.  The reaction is as follows:

 

          NaOH + (C17H35 COO)3C3H5            3C17H35COONa + H2O

          Caustic

          Soda           Stearic acid                                  Soap       Water

 

The NAFDAC STANDARD FOR QUALITY SOAP IS – 02 – 1526.

 

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