PREPARATION OF CLEANSING CREAM
This research work is a detailed study on preparation of cleansing cream. The aim is to prepare cleansing cream of better quality than the available ones in the market. The study explores the work done by some eminent scholars in connection with cream and preparation of cleansing cream. Cream can be defined as an article intended to be rubbed, sprinkled, sprayed on, or otherwise applied to the human body or any part there of, for beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or attiring the physical appearance of the skin, leaving it soft and smooth, thereby making the body look younger. Creams are of different types which include: cleansing cream, eye and lip cleanser, floral oil, nourishing cleansing milk, and softening lotion etc. the present investigation revealed that temperature and concentration of materials have the most crucial effect on creams as manifested by precipitation, and separation and also loss of creamy effect. Cream emulsion containing hydroquinone, lightens and bleaches the skin while cream emulsion containing benzoic acids are agents against microbial attacks on the skin. The materials used in cleansing cream preparation include: paraffin wax, liquid paraffin, stearic acid, borax, and water. Finally, the performance was incorporate into the cream at the temperature of 450C and a white fine cream was obtained as the result of the analysis.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of contents
1.2 Aim and objectives of the study
1.3 Statement of problem
1.4 Significance of the study
1.6 Limitation of the study
2.0 Literature review
2.1 Definition of cream
2.2 The historical background of cream
2.3 Classification of cream
2.5 Emulsifying agents
2.6 The colloid state
2.7 Features of colloidal system
2.8 Types of colloidal system
Cream can be regarded as an article intended to be rubbed, sprinkled, sprayed on or otherwise applied to the human body or any part thereof, for beautifying or altering the physical appearance of the skin, leaving it soft and smooth, thereby making the body look younger. Cream constituents who are found to be the foundation of most creams include:
a. Fats and oil, which forms the base
b. Water or alcohol, which acts as the liquid
c. Emulsion, which holds the mixture together
The improvement in modern technology has led to the production of creams for special purpose. For example cream emulsion containing hydroquinone lightens the skin and it is also known as bleaching cream while cream that contains benzoic acid is used against microbial attacks on the skin, (berg and caster 1978). It is well known in interfacial science that paraffin oil have its importance as conditioning and lubricating agent while borax serves as a cleansing agent. For oil in water emulsion, stearic acid is specially used which is the basic substance in cream preparation and serves as emulsifying agent, with new formulation, improvement, can still be made on the already existing creams as well.
1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
This study aims at preparing cleansing cream of better quality than the available ones in the market. It therefore has the following objectives:
i. To determine the materials used in preparation of cleansing cram of high quality.
ii. To examine the method involved in preparing the cleansing cream that does not have huge financial involvement.
1.3 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Over the years, there has been increasingly rapid growth in manufacturing of fake and adulterated creams; the producers produce such cream(s) with little or no effort to use the actual material and method involved in its preparation. When such cream(s) is used, it will cause irritation to the skin because of the inability to use the adequate materials and to test the pH density and viscosity of the cream.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study will provide effective method of producing cleansing cream with desired qualities. Creams sold in the market when used instead of either cleansing or protecting the skin cause burns and removes the skin. This is caused by either inadequate of mixing the materials in their right proportions or adding one of the cheap ingredients that will either be acidic or basic which reacts with the protein of the body.
H0 Cleansing cream causes skin irritation
H1 Cleansing cream do not cause any harm to the skin.
1.6 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This research work is limited to the scope of preparing cleansing cream that does not cause irritation to the skin.
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
In order to carryout this research effectively and expeditiously; the research student deemed it expedient to critically look at or rather explore the works done by some eminent scholar in connection with cream production. Such explorable areas are cream business management, production and distribution. To mention only but a few, the exploration will no doubt help the researchers to analytically examine the views, ideas or opinions of those individuals.
2.1 DEFINITION OF CREAM
The crucial role of cream as a means of beautifying and promoting attractiveness of the skin cannot be over emphasized. To fully understand the term cream, one has to start with a detailed definition of cream. This is important because some people see cream as just something that is being rubbed to the body.
Berg and Laster, (1978) defined cream as: “An article intended to be rubbed, sprinkled, sprayed on, or otherwise applied to the human body or any part thereof, for beautifying, promoting attractiveness or altering the physical appearance of the skin, leaving it soft and smooth, thereby making the body look younger”.
2.2 THE HISTORICAL BACKROUND OF CREAM
Considering cream as a cosmetic, the history of cram can be traced back between 5000 and 3800 years ago, when the Egyptians were using green copper as eye shadow. Women used the application of this green copper to seduce men, very much later. However, the England parliament passed an act in 1770, to punish any woman that shall impose upon, seduce and betray into matrimony because of the application of cosmetics. This in effect reduced the application of cosmetic cream to 75 percent in the year 1934. when cosmetics cream stations were set up in factories, the production curve soared upward and women flocked to factories for woks, without being diligent to their works. This on its own still reduced cream production to 50 percent in the year 1943. Balsamn and Gershon (1972) stated, “That biological information concerning the skin and cream entails that skin has 2 ¾ million sweat glands, sebaceous gland which secrets fatty substance called sebum which also keeps the skin soft and supple”.
2.3 CLASSIFICATION OF CREAM
Recently, Bache (2000) enumerated the various types of cream, which is as follows:
i. CLEANSING CREAM
This is known as a softening cream, which consists of inacadamia nut, apricot kernel, and sweet almond oil that gently cleanses dry, and sensitive skins. It removes all traces of make up without disrupting the skin’s protective barrier.
ii. EYE AND LIP CLEANSER
This is a lubricating and gentle cream, it is rich in hydrogenated coconut oil, vitamins A and D. it contains a unique ingredient – squalene, which is non irritating and melts in contacts.