EFFECTIVE PRICING STRATEGIES FOR MARKETING OF NEW PRODUCTS (A CASE STUDY OF ROYALUZ BY HARDIS AND DROMADES LTD, IN ENUGU STATE)
This study focussed on effective pricing strategies for marketing of New products a case study of Royalux by Hardis and Dromades. The objectives of the study are as follows.
- To determine the methods used by Hardis and Dromades in setting prices for their new product – Royalux.
- To determine how prices of Royalux affect its demand, position and market shares.
- To find out how customers respond to different prices of different quality of products.
The scope of the study was limited to Enugu Metropolis. In sourcing for the required informtion, the researcher used both primary and secondary data which collected through oral interviews and administration of three sets of questionnaire one for the management and relevant staff of Hardis and Dromades, others for consumer and distributors. Bowloy’s formular was used to determine the sample size of consumers while Topmans formular was used for Distributors whist a census survey was used for the management/ relevant staff of Hardis and Dromades. Data were organized, analysed, interpreted and summaried using tables, percentages, pie chart and histogram, and chi-square statistics were used to test the three hypotheses formulated.
Based on the analysis, the following finding were made;
- That Hardis and Dromades products become a household name in Enugu.
- That the firms cost of production was given the highest consideration in setting price for Royalux.
- The high cost of transportation and handling cost contributed to increase in price of Royalux
- That the wholesales and consumer of Hardis product were encourage to a reasonable price to buy Royalux.
Table of content
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Objective of the study
1.4 Formulation of hypothesis
1.5 Scope of the study
1.6 Definition of term
2.0 Literature review
2.1 Overview of pricing
2.2 Objective of pricing
2.3 Pricing strategies
2.4 Factor influencing price (Determination)
2.5 Impact of pricing on the marketing of New product
2.6 Pricing strategies Adopted for marketing new product.
2.7 Pricing strategies for the marketing of Royalux.
3.0 Research methodology
3.1 Sources of data
3.2 Research instrument used
3.3 Population of study
3.4 Determination of sample size
3.5 Sampling techniques
3.6 Method of data analysis and treatment
3.7 Questionnaire administration
3.8 Limitations of study
4.0 Data presentation, analysis and interpretation
4.1 Presentation and analysis of data
4.2 Test of hypothesis
5.0 Summary of findings, recommendation & conclusion
5.1 Summary of findings
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Marketing operates within a dynamic environment and today’s companies are wreathing with customer values and orientations; economic stagnation, environmental decline, increased global competition, and a host of other economic political, social and pricing challenges which if Ignored will be detrimental to the company. Marketing is concerned with getting the right product to the right customer at the right price.
Price for a product is one of the factors that determine the demand for the product, that is why economic theory states that price is determined by the interaction of demand and supply cost and price usually affect demand and these three are in continuous inter play. For economist, it is a key factor describing the level and movement of demand. The basic assumption made about demand is that all things being equal, price plays a decisive role in determination of the rate of purchase by the consumers. Price presents a thorny but interesting phenomenon under our current economic system.
Traditionally, price occupies the second position of the internal or important variables of the marketing mix otherwise known as 4ps.
Product, price and promotion, place pricing decision aspect of a firms marketing programme arises partly from the fact that of all the elements of the marketing mix, price is the only one that generates income and revenue while the next represent lost to the firm (Adirika, Ebue and Nwachukwu 1996:59). Price is also one of the flexible elements of other elements of the marketing mix unlike, product features and channel commitment, price can be changed quickly and if price is well blended with way in achieving better result. Price is a very sensitive issues facing a company of which a company cannot do without because of that, it can make or mar a company’s image. Price communicates to the market the company’s interview value/positioning of its products/services.
No company will want to incur loss through the sales of its products. Inspite of this firms want to achieve certain level of customer satisfaction translated in price terms, that is why both manufacturers and marketers use price to accomplish multiple objectives price may be use as a clue to product quality while conveying to the customers that a seller has high quality goods and services. Price wears many hats, stated by (Mark 1979) of the authors in pricing strategies and this emphasizes the crucial role of pricing in the survival of a company. At the same time price are pricing competition is the number one problem facing many marketing executives. Yet, many companies do not handle pricing well. The most common mistake are: pricing that is too cost oriented; prices that are not revised often enough to take the rest of the marketing mix into account; prices that are various enough for different products, market segment and purchase occasions.
Historically prices usually were set by buyers and sellers bargaining with each other sellers would asked for a higher price than they expected to get and buyers would offer less than they are expected to pay. Through the bargaining process, the would arrive at acceptable price individual buyer pay different prices for the same products, depending on their needs and bargaining skills.
Historically, price has been the major factor affecting choice. This is skill trade in poorer nations, among poorer groups, and with commodity products. However, non-price factor have become more important in buyers – choice behaviour in recent decades.
A company may decided to divert into a particular market at a specific price level as it develops a product accordingly, this is called pricing strategy. The organization aim at the most valuable price level that is ripe for exploitation or that meet its market objective at a profit, once the price level has been established necessary variation in price structure from day to day and from time to time are tactical.
But if you have a good product, do not spoil it by trying to sell it too cheaply because Nigerian Consumers associate high price with quality product even though it is a price consumed community.
From the above, “Price” constitute an important or essential area of study, because price of a product is not seen by the purchaser simply in terms of what is the cheapest price rather and element in the total bundle of satisfaction which constitute a product in the consumers eyes.
Therefore, it is a means of increasing primary demand per a product, a firm may like to fix a price that is likely to increase wider consumer acceptance and consequently increase the volume of a product. Both the manufacturers, the purchasers and likewise buyers look at price differently.
The manufacturer and the retailers view the price relating to how good his accounting method are how much profit he may be capable of making price is expressed in terms of Naira and kobo or any other monetary medium of exchange and it tells the purchaser what the cost will be to him. Although cost is not necessary regarded purely in terms of immediate ash payment in order to own a product.
Therefore, pricing function is handled different ways by different organization. In small organization, price decision is made by top management while in large organization it s handled by lower manager and marketing department in accordance with top management pricing objective, policies, strategies and procedure,
A marketing firm should, therefore adopt such pricing strategies that will lead to the realization of not only the pricing objective but also the normal corporate goals of the firm.
Schewe and Smith (1980: 134-137) identified two broad pricing strategies which marketing can adopt in setting the prices of new products. These are setting an initial high price for the product (Skinghind Pricing Strategy) and/or setting an initial price (penetration pricing strategy) aimed at facilitating consumer acceptance.
Hardies and Dromades Nigeria Limited was incorporated in Nigeria as a private liability company in October 11th 1993 with its registration number as 232241. On October 10 1996, it was duly registered to be Mixing, compounding, manufacturing, preparing Dispensing and selling of drugs, poisons dispensing lotion, soaps etc at the provision of pharmacist council of Nigeria. Its functions amongst other business were to carry on manufacturing of hygiene household products.
The company is located at Emene in Enugu with branches in almost all the big cities in Nigeria. This research work centers on the company’s effective pricing strategies for marketing of a New Product – Royallux. Pricing can determine especially at the introductory stage of a new product the success or failure of the product in the market.
Hardis and Dromades manufacturing firm adopts both low pricing strategy and high pricing strategy in marketing its new product – Royallux. The low pricing strategy their new product – Royallux as fast as possible in order to generate substantial sales volume and a larger market share while the high pricing strategy makes it possible for the firm to recover its product cost and other expenses as quickly as possible (Stanton 1984:79). This decision is influenced by a number of factors such as customers demand schedule, the cost function, the competitors prices/reaction and the firms pricing objectives and existing government regulation regarding pricing generally. Vernon and Lamb (1986 : 60) stated the importance of these factors in determining the prices of varies from one company to another.
Because of the important of price in the marketing of new product that the researcher takes a critical look at the effective of pricing strategies for marketing of new product with emphasis of Royallux.