Effect Of Value Added Tax On The Growth Of Nigerian Economy

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In this research work titled Effect of Value Added Tax (VAT) on the growth of Nigerian economy with particular reference to Enugu State Board of Internal Revenue (ESBIR). The researcher examined the relationship between VAT revenue and Gross Domestic Product of Nigeria. The relationship between VAT revenue and unemployment rate in Nigeria. And also evaluated the effect of growth pattern of VAT revenue on inflation rate in Nigeria. Data for the study was sourced through CBN Annual report and journal articles related to the subjects matter. The data collected was analyzed using SPSS. The results of the study revealed that calculated t-statistics (t = 0.415) for GDP is less than tabulated t-statistics at 0.05 level of significance. The overall regression model is statistically significant in terms of its overall goodness of fit (f = 0.555, p < 0.05). As a result of this the study accepts the alternative hypothesis meaning that there is significant relationship between VAT revenue and gross domestic product of Nigeria. The researcher observed that growth pattern of value added tax revenue on inflation rate in Nigeria.  It was also observed that there is significant relationship between VAT revenue and unemployment rate in Nigeria. The study equally discovered that there is significant relationship between VAT revenue and gross domestic product of Nigeria. Based on the findings the researcher recommends that Tax Act 1993should be established to reduce cases of tax evasion and remittance of tax collections especially custom and excise duties which reported a negative effect on GDP. Only professionals and trustworthy hands should be responsible for tax administration. All taxes should be remitted via an e-payment system or via direct payment to the various tax authorities' accounts. This will enhance and support the cashless economy system introduced recently. Tax Clearance Certificates and other tax documents used in government transactions should be referred back to the relevant revenue authority for authentication





Title                                                                                 ii

Certification                                                                     iii    

Approval                                                                          iv

Dedication                                                                       v

Acknowledgments                                                            vi

Abstract                                                                           vii   



1.1   Background of the Study                                        1

1.2   Statement of the Problem                                        4

1.3   Objective of the Study                                              5

1.4   Research Questions                                                 6

1.5   Statement of Hypotheses                                                 6

1.6   Significance of the Study                                         7

1.7   Scope and Limitations of the Study                         7     

1.8   Operation Definition of Terms                                  9


Review of Related Literature

2.1 Conceptual Framework                                              11

2.1.1        Genesis of VAT                                                         17

2.1.2 Implementation Of Vat In Nigeria                           19

2.1.3 The Nature of VAT                                                   21

2.1.4 Vat Amendment Act: (2007)                                    22

2.1.5 Vat Amendment Bill (2005)                                     23

2.1.6 VAT Policies                                                            24

2. 1.7 Different Types of Valued Added Tax (VAT)            25

2.1.8           Structure of VAT                                                   27

2. 1.9 VAT Increase and its Implication                           27

2. 1.10 Prospects and Problems of VAT in Nigeria           10

2.1.11 Administration Of Valued Added Tax In Nigeria    31

2.2 Theoretical Framework                                              33

2.3 Empirical Framework                                                         37

2.3.1 Value Added Tax and Economic Growth                 40

        Reference                                                                 54





3.1 Research Design                                                        56

3.2 Sources of Data                                                         57

3.3 Area Of The Study                                                      58

3.4 Population Of The Study                                            58

3.5 Sample size Determination                                                59

3.6   Research Instrumentation                                       59

3.7   Validity Of The Instrument                                      59

3. 8 Reliability of the Instrument                                     59

3.9 Model Specification                                                    60

3.10 Description of Variable                                            61

3.11 Method of data Analysis                                           61


Data Presentation And Analysis                  

4.1      Data Presentation                                                    63

4.2      Analysis of Data                                                       64

4.3      Testing of Hypothesis                                               68

4.4      Discussion of Findings                                            70


Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations        

5.1      Summary of Findings                                              74

5.2      Conclusion                                                              74

5.3      Recommendations                                                   76


Appendix I

Appendix II





1.1 Background Of The Study

Value Added Tax (VAT) is a consumption tax, levied at each stage of the consumption chain and borne by the final consumer of the product or service. The administration of VAT is relatively easy, unselective and difficult to evade. Countries all over the world, look for ways to boost their revenue, this facilitated many nations to introduce value added tax on goods and services. For instance in Africa, VAT has been introduced in Benin Republic, Cote d’Ivore, Guinea, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Senegal, Togo, Nigeria. Evidence suggests that in these countries VAT has become an important contributor to government revenue (Ajakaiye, 2000; Shalizi and Square, 1988; Adereti, Adesina and Sanni, 2011).

Nigeria introduced VAT in 1993, however its full implementation began on 1st January, 1994. This has attracted the attention of researchers and academia on its benefit on the economic growth of Nigeria. Economic growth as measured the increase in the national income or total volume of production of goods and services of a country accompanied by improvements in the total standard of living of the people (Chinwuba and Amos, 2011 as cited in Ihendinihu and Onwuchekwa, 2012). Related works on this topic focused on the impact of VAT on economic growth, measured with GDP. Our objective here is to investigate the growth pattern of VAT on GDP, the effect of the changes in VAT and target and VAT actual on the economy, and also the effect of VAT revenue on Tax revenue.

The value Added Tax decree 102 of 1993 was established and was imposed on 1994 to replace sales tax in Nigeria. The Value Added Tax in Nigeria were created as replacement for the sales taxes that were in operation before they were imposed on all goods that were manufactured in the country and goods produced outside the country and were sold in Nigeria. The Value Added Tax (VAT) in an ideal form of taxation in Nigeria tax system, has significantly contributed to resources mobilization as well as capital formation to the economy. It has positive and significant effect on revenue mobilization in Nigeria; it also has positive relationship with consumption. It has positive and significant effect on revenue mobilization in Nigeria.

VAT is a consumption tax that is relatively easy to administer and difficult to evade and it has been embraced by many countries worldwide (Federal Inland Revenue Service 1993). Evidence so far supports the view that VAT revenue is already a significant source of revenue in Nigeria. For example, actual VAT revenue from 1994 was N8.189 billion which is 36.59% higher than the projected N6 billion for the year. Similarly, actual VAT revenue for 1995 was N21 billion compared with the projected N12 billion. In terms of contribution to total federal revenue collection, VAT accounted for about 4.06% in 1994 and 5.93% in 1995. As much as N404.5 billion was collected on VAT (5.1%) of total revenue in 2008.

VAT revenue is generated for distribution to the state and local government in Nigeria, Unlike the oil revenue. This helps to reduce over dependence on oil revenue, this assures a sustainable economic growth and development. While the performance of VAT as a source of revenue in Nigeria is encouraging, it means difficult to find attempts to systematically assess the effect on VAT on the economy.

Recent research work on the impact of taxation on the Nigeria economy impact up all the various taxes together without isolating VAT. How and in what direction VAT has be affecting the Nigeria economy? And the relationship of VAT on economic growth? Findings answers to this and other similar questions is the main trust of this paper.

1.2 Statement Of The Problem

The attitude of Nigerians towards taxation is worrisome as many prefer not to pay tax if given the opportunity. The economy continues to lose huge amount of revenue through the unwholesome practice to tax avoidance and tax evasion, this loss of revenue can change the fortune of many economies, particularly, developing countries like Nigeria. This problem has been lingering for so long which urgent attention and solution is over due to the cost of collecting tax in Nigeria.  (Both social and economic cost) is too high to the extent that if left unchecked, the cost may soon outweigh the benefit or value derived from such operation and that will not the appropriate for the system. In Nigeria, VAT is one of the instruments the federal government introduced to generate additional revenue. Yet, most prominent Nigerians and interest groups had spoken against its introduction. It would appear that VAT is froth with some problems. For the purpose of this project work, we shall examine the implications of VAT on revenue generation in Nigeria and how VAT affects the economic growth in Nigeria.

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Effect Of Value Added Tax On The Growth Of Nigerian  Economy