LIQUIDITY MANAGEMENT IN MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES
(A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA BREWERIES NINTH MILE CORNER NGWO)
The topic liquidity management in manufacturing industries is the inflow and outflow of liquidity in an organization to ensure that there is availability of funds meet up the firms’ short term financial obligation. Because of the need for increase efficiency in liquidity management especially in this period of high inflation rate that threatens the value of any ideal liquidity. Liquidity is the important current assets for operation of business. The purpose of liquidity management in manufacturing industries is to find out whether formulized liquidity management system exist in manufacturing industries particularly in Nigerian Breweries Limited 9th Mile corner. The implication of these liquidity management is that activities does not auger well for the overall well being of Nigerian Brewery. In chapter one the study has been devoted to the introductory part of the topic which deals with the over-view of liquidity management, the nature and definition of cash management. Chapter two the research review the related literature on liquidity management as it concerns manufacturing industries. Chapter three is the research design and methodology, area, population, sampling of study. Chapter four deals with data analysis and testing. Chapter five deals with findings, implications and conclusion.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page - - - - - - - - - - i
Approval - - - - - - - - - - ii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - - iii
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - - iv
Abstract - - - - - - - - - - - v
Table of contents - - - - - - - - vi
1.1 Background of the study - - - - - - 1
1.2 Statement of the problem - - - - - 3
1.3 Objective of the study - - - - - - 4
1.4 Significant of the study - - - - - - 4
1.5 Research questions- - - - - - - 5
1.6 Research hypothesis - - - - - - 6
1.7 Scope of the study - - - - - - - 7
1.8 Limitation of the study- - - - - - 8
1.9 Dentition of Term - - - - - - - 8
2.0 Related literature at the end of literature Review - 10
2.1 Strategies for cash management - - - - 18
2.2 Objective of cash management - - - - 20
2.3 Importance of cash management - - - - 21
2.4 Motive for holding cash - - - - - - 23
2.5 Specific advantages of adequate cash - - - 27
2.6 Cash planning- - - - - - - - 28
2.7 Cash forecasting and budgeting - - - - 30
2.8 Managing the cash flows- - - - - - 37
2.9 Management Techniques - - - - - - 37
2.10Cash Balance -- - - - - - - - 38
2.11Determining the Cash Balance - - - - - 39
3.0 Research Design - - - - - - - 41
3.1 Area of study - - - - - - - - 41
3.2 Population of the study - - - - - - 41
3.3 Sample Method - - - - - - - - 42
3.4 Research Instrument - - - - - - - 43
3.5 Validation of the research instrument - - - 44
3.6 Sources of data - - - - - - - - 46
3.7 Method of data Analysis - - - - - - - 47
3.8 Sample size determination - - - - - 47
4.0 Data presentation and analysis - - - - 49
4.1 Analysis of Data using the simple percentage - - 51
4.2 Test of Hypothesis - -- - - - - - - 66
5.0 Discussion and conclusion of results - - - 79
5.1 Discussion of findings - - - - - - 79
5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - - 83
5.3 Recommendation - - - - - - - 86
5.4 Suggestion for further study - - - - - - 90
5.5 Limitation of the study -- - - - - - 91
Bibliography -- - - - - - - - 92
Appendix A - - - - - - - - 93
Appendix B - - - - - - - - 94
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Liquidity management is the basic input needed to keep the business running on a continuous basis. it is also the ultimate output expected to be realized by selling the service or product manufactured by the firm. The firm should keep sufficient cash neither more or less, shortage will disrupt the firms manufacturing operation, While excessive idle without contributing anything towards the firms profitability.
Liquidity management involves initially, the provision of sufficient cash to meet the organizations obligations, the aim of this project is to explain in simple and clear language what management must do to have effective control over its most liquidly and important asset cash. Thus a major assignment of the financial manager is to maintain a sound cash position. Effective management and control of cash is very important to the firm because cash represent instantly available purchasing power and nearly every transaction ultimately involved the exchange of cash.
An integral part of cash administration is concerned with the effective utilization of corporate fund. The planning and control of this activities is made necessary by the fact that business is cyclical in nature and a considerable amount of time, during which raw material must be purchased and wages and over head paid collapse between the receipt of an order its shipment and banking of cash. An investment in cash assets is required in order to meet the company’s operational need, the uneven flow in the receipt and disbursement of funds, seasonal fluctuations and so on. Moreover, the receipt and disbursement of fund is varies on a daily bases and within the month, with a heavy cash receipt accruing at a particular time. Sophisticated cash management models recognize the uncertainty inherent in forecasting both cash inflows and outflows.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMS
Liquidity constitution a substantial part of current assets of many companies particularly in Nigeria. An effective cash management is necessary for the overall performance of organization, one is surprised at the complete lack of formalized cash management system in many organization in Nigeria. While some companies prepare cash budget at the beginning of the financial year. Without any follow up control process, others just have cash. Management to the monthly bank reconciliation statements, which are often prepared in arrears, unfortunately, it is only when cash problem arises that the management starts to look for solution.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
In every business organization effective liquidity management plays a vital role in assisting the business attain certain goals. Among this basic purpose of the study are;
a) To determine the part which effective liquidity management plays in organizations in attaining its objectives.
b) To verify from practicing accountants and financial executives the consequences of not having effective liquidity management in manufacturing organization.
c) To relate how effective liquidity management can assist business to attain their predetermine profitability by increasing net returns on asset investment.
d) To determine whether inefficient liquidity management has any impact in manufacturing investment.
e) To ascertain how a company can optimize liquidity position by adequate cash management.
f) To determine the level of efficiency in liquidity management of Nigeria Breweries Limited 9th Mile Corner Ngwo.
g) To find out whether formalized liquidity management system exist in manufacturing industries particularly in Nigerian Breweries Limited 9th Mile Corner.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTION
a) How has liquidity management assisted Breweries Industries in attaining predetermined profitability?
b) Is effective liquidity management necessary in optimizing liquidity position?
c) What are the roles of liquidity management in working capital evaluation?
d) Is effective management present in manufacturing organization such as Nigerian Breweries Plc.
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
The following hypothesis were formulated by the researcher.
Ho Liquidity management has no role to play in the attainment of organizational goals.
Hi Liquidity management has significant role to play in the attainment of organizational goals.
Ho Effective liquidity management is not necessary in optimizing liquidity position of an organizations.
Hi Effective liquidity management is needed in optimizing liquidity position of an organization.
Ho Liquidity management has no role to play in working capital evaluation.
Hi Liquidity management has significant role to play in working capital evaluation.
Ho Liquidity management is not effective in Nigeria breweries.
Hi Liquidity management is effective in Nigeria breweries.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
It is on established fact that in any research project like this type, it is not always easy to cover all possible grounds one would like to cover due to time constrains.
This research work though based on manufacturing industries were limited to Nigerian Breweries Limited 9th Mile Corner Ngwo and its environs due to time since the time required for the completion is very short, the researcher finds it difficult to cover all the manufacturing organization in Enugu State.
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
In recent time due to changes in business generally, greater emphasis have been placed on liquidity management. The important of this study is that it will highlight the consequences of not having and operating an efficient liquidity management system in business organizations. The research work will also expose the management of manufacturing organization to effective way to manage cash towards the achievement of organizational goals.
1.8 Definition of terms
Liquidity represents instantly available purchasing power and nearly every transaction ultimately involved the exchange of cash.
Liquidity management involves initially, the provision of sufficient cash to meet the organization obligation.