TREND IN THE USE OF HUMAN MODELS IN THE NIGERIA ADVERTISING INDUSTRY
This research focused on Trends in the use of Human Model in the Nigeria Advertising Industry. This study consists five chapters, the first chapter cover and introduction of study. The research problem, objectives of the study, formulation of hypotheses, the significance, the limitations and the scope of the study was also tested in this chapter.
Chapter two described the theoretical framework and related literature review. In chapter three, Research methodology was covered while chapter four dealt with Analysis and presentation of Data Besides Hypothesis Testing. The summary, conclusion and Recommendations for further study were made in chapter five.
The research is carried out through the method of survey research. The empirical aspect of the work is carried out using information obtained from both sample of consumers age groups and five advertising agencies in Enugu and Lagos they use model in advertising products or services.
The core of this study is to analyse the effectiveness of using models in advertising and its ethical implications.
Based on these, three hypotheses were formulated.
1. H: Modeling is a very effective advertising strategy in Nigeria
NH: Modeling is not an effective advertising strategy in Nigeria.
2. H: Models used in advertising is seen as ethical by Nigerians.
NH: Models used in advertising is seen as unethical by Nigerians.
3. H: Models influence prospective buyers on the purchase of products.
4. Television and bill-boards are the best among the models.
5. Television is the best vehicle to use models in advertising.
Based on the above findings, some recommendations made are
1. Advertising agencies should incorporate modeling service on their organization so that such models used could be specifically, and efficiently trained for the specific product to suit the marketing objection
2. Greater emphasis should be made on the use of local models in advertising product especially cigarette.
3. Since modeling has been found to be effective as advertising strategy, efforts should be made to increase the rate paid to models in order to encourage people to go into professional modeling schools to train the young ones is recommended.
4. It has been found that use of models in cigarette advert significantly affect consumers below twenty years, therefore, efforts should be made to restrict cigarette advert to such programmes which will not attract the ago groups below twenty, since they are more influenced by the models used in cigarette advertisement.
TABLE OF CONTENT
APPROVAL PAGE III
TABLE OF CONTENT IX
LIST OF TABLES XII
1.1 INTRODUCTION 1
1.2 PROBLEM STATEMENT 4
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY 5
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 7
1.5 FORMULATION OF THE HYPOTHESES 6
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 7
1.7 LIMITATION OF STUDY 8
1.8 SCOPE OF THE STUDY 9
1.9 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS 9
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 13
2.1 CONCEPT OF ADVERTISING IN NIGERIA 13
2.2 BRIEF HISTORY OF ADVERTISING
AGENCIES IN NIGERIA 15
2.3 MODELS, MODELING AND MODELING AGENCY IN NIGERIA 17
2.4 MODELING AS AID TO EFFECTIVE ADVERTISING 22
2.5 ADVERTISING AND MARKETING PSYCHOLOGY 23
2.6 CIGARETTE ADVERTISEMENT
IN ELECTRONIC MEDIA 30
2.7 REFERENCE 33
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN 36
3.2 RESEARCH METHOD 36
3.3 DETERMINATION OF SAMPLE SIZED 37
3.4 DATA ANALYSIS 38
3.5 EXPECTED RESULT 39
ANALYSIS, PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA
4.1 PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA 40
4.2 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA 50
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS 60
5.2 CONCLUSION 63
5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS 65
LIST OF TABLES
1. Advertising Agency Organization
2. Rates approved for Artistes /models by APN member Agencies
3. Hierarchy of effect model.
4. Consumer questionnaire distribution
5. Management Questionnaire Distribution
6. Age classification of consumer Respondents.
7. Education Status.
8. Sex classification
9. Media commonly carrying models cigarette Advertisements
10. Influence of model to increase buying Habit
11. Agencies Questionnaire Distribution
12. The Effectiveness of model in Advertising
13. Factors Responsible for the Effectiveness
14. The media selection for model used in Advertising
15. Questionnaire survey table.
16. The Age groups of consumers that considered Advertising as Ethical.
Advertising is any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of persons, institutions, ideas, goods or services, by an identified sponsor using appropriate medium or media of communication. According to the Cable news network (CNN), advertising gives us the right to choose, in the market place. It induces immediate sales and builds sustainable image for a product.
Advertising also informs buyers about products that ate new in the market as well as remind them about old ones almost forgotten due to lack of publicity on them. It tells about names of such new products and where to get them. Using well know models to advertise products or services creates arousal of interest if viewers identify such products or services with the models.
Advertising practitioners/advertisers hold the view that when celebrity models are used for promotion of goods or services, the loyalty of the garget audience is won. The use of models in advertising stem, from the marketing concept and also emanates from the fact that advertisers and advertising agencies realized the power influence and importance of associating notable personalities or even good looking people with product identity in order to achieve the following reasons:
1. To attract the attention of prospective buyers.
2. Improve the sales of the products by associating it with such models.
3. To get buyers to be favourably disposed to the products.
4. To propagate the brand
5. To improve on the brand image
6. To add value to advertising and communications industry.
World wide use of model in advertising has remind a remarkable instrument of increasing business activities because the appeals drawn will be very effective in advertising and will attract much concern where attitude change is involved. As a result, some developments have been with eased in the advertising industry within the least twenty years in the area of supportive services as radio and television production, research and out door services. These are activities and ventures where modeling services are required.
To day, advertising industry use models in several ways either on television or advertisement on the pages and covers of various magazines, newspapers, journals calendars, bill-boards, and posters.
Hogarth (1968) asserts that there are many different ways in which models are used in advertising and further stated how complex the world of advertising can be if one stops to think about models used in advertising. The models could be trained, untrained, celebrities, seductive and non-deductive. But of all the models used. Celebrity models seem to be the most effective in advertising.
White Hooper (1946) sees celebrity endorsements as finding either an authority star personality, or entertainer, who will associate himself/herself with your product, in some positive fashion, that will enhance its popularity with the television audience”. This study which was conceived out of a sense of strong interest in models used in advertising, coupled with the fact that too little was known about models used in advertisements by the modeling agencies or advertising agencies is intended to find out the influence of these models in advertisements. Most of the advertising firms operate through modeling agencies and