Trend In The Use Of Human Models In The Nigeria Advertising Industry

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TREND IN THE USE OF HUMAN MODELS IN THE NIGERIA ADVERTISING INDUSTRY

ABSTRACT

This research focused on Trends in the use of Human Model in the Nigeria Advertising Industry.   This study consists five chapters, the first chapter cover and  introduction of study.  The research problem, objectives of the study, formulation  of  hypotheses, the significance, the limitations and the scope of the study  was also tested in this  chapter.

          Chapter two described the theoretical framework and related literature review.  In chapter three, Research methodology was covered while chapter four dealt with  Analysis and presentation of Data Besides Hypothesis Testing.  The summary, conclusion and Recommendations  for further study were made in chapter five.

          The research is carried out through the method of survey research.  The empirical aspect of the work is carried out using information obtained from both sample of consumers  age groups and five advertising agencies in Enugu and Lagos they use model in advertising products or services.

          The core of this study is to analyse the effectiveness of using models in advertising and its ethical implications.

          Based on these, three hypotheses were formulated.

1.       H:      Modeling is a very effective advertising  strategy in Nigeria

          NH:   Modeling is not an effective advertising strategy in Nigeria.

2.       H:      Models used in advertising is seen as ethical by Nigerians.

          NH:   Models used in advertising is seen as unethical by Nigerians.

3.       H:      Models influence prospective buyers on the purchase of        products.

4.       Television and bill-boards are the best among the models.

5.       Television is the best vehicle to use models  in advertising.

Based on the above findings, some recommendations made are

1.       Advertising agencies should incorporate modeling service on their organization so that such models used could be specifically, and efficiently trained for the specific product to suit the marketing objection 

2.       Greater emphasis should be made  on the use  of local models in advertising product especially cigarette.

3.       Since modeling has been found to be effective as advertising strategy, efforts should be made to increase the rate paid to models in order to encourage people to go  into professional modeling schools  to train the young ones is  recommended.

4.       It has been found that use of models in cigarette advert significantly affect consumers below twenty years, therefore, efforts should be made to restrict cigarette advert to such programmes which will not attract the ago  groups below twenty, since they are more influenced by the models used in cigarette advertisement.


TABLE OF CONTENT

TITLE PAGE                                                                          II      

APPROVAL PAGE                                                                III

DEDICATION                                                                        IV

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT                                                       V

ABSTRACT                                                                            VI

TABLE OF CONTENT                                                          IX

LIST OF TABLES                                                                            XII   

CHAPTER ONE 

1.1            INTRODUCTION                                                                   1

1.2            PROBLEM STATEMENT                                            4

1.3            OBJECTIVE OF  THE STUDY                                    5

1.4            RESEARCH QUESTIONS                                           7

1.5            FORMULATION  OF THE HYPOTHESES                          6

1.6            SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY                               7

1.7            LIMITATION OF STUDY                                            8

1.8            SCOPE OF THE STUDY                                              9

1.9            DEFINITIONS  OF TERMS                                         9

1.10       REFERENCE                                                               

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW  OF RELATED LITERATURE                               13

2.1            CONCEPT OF ADVERTISING IN NIGERIA              13

2.2            BRIEF HISTORY  OF ADVERTISING

AGENCIES IN NIGERIA                                             15

2.3            MODELS, MODELING AND MODELING  AGENCY IN NIGERIA                                                                         17

2.4            MODELING AS AID TO EFFECTIVE ADVERTISING       22

2.5            ADVERTISING AND MARKETING PSYCHOLOGY         23

2.6            CIGARETTE ADVERTISEMENT

 IN ELECTRONIC MEDIA                                           30

2.7            REFERENCE                                                                33

CHAPTER THREE

METHODOLOGY                                                                  36

3.1            RESEARCH DESIGN                                                   36

3.2            RESEARCH METHOD                                                36              

3.3            DETERMINATION  OF SAMPLE SIZED                             37

3.4            DATA ANALYSIS                                                        38

3.5            EXPECTED RESULT                                                   39

CHAPTER FOUR

ANALYSIS, PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION OF  DATA

4.1            PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS  OF DATA                   40

4.2            ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA      50

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1            SUMMARY OF FINDINGS                                         60

5.2            CONCLUSION                                                              63

5.3            RECOMMENDATIONS                                                         65

BIBLIOGRAPHY                                                                   67

APPENDIXES                                                               73     


LIST OF TABLES

1.                 Advertising Agency Organization

2.                 Rates approved for Artistes /models by APN member Agencies

3.                 Hierarchy of effect model.

4.                 Consumer questionnaire distribution

5.                 Management Questionnaire Distribution

6.                 Age classification of consumer Respondents.

7.                 Education Status.

8.                 Sex classification

9.                 Media commonly carrying models cigarette Advertisements

10.            Influence of model to increase buying Habit 

11.            Agencies Questionnaire Distribution

12.            The Effectiveness of model in Advertising

13.            Factors Responsible for the Effectiveness

14.            The media selection for model used in Advertising

15.            Questionnaire survey table.

16.            The Age groups  of consumers that considered Advertising as Ethical.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Advertising is any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of persons, institutions, ideas, goods or services, by an identified sponsor using appropriate medium or media of communication.  According to the Cable news network (CNN), advertising gives us the right to choose, in the market place.  It induces immediate sales and builds sustainable  image  for a product.

          Advertising also informs buyers  about products that ate new in the market as well as remind them about old ones almost forgotten due  to lack of publicity on them.   It  tells about names of such new products and where  to  get them.  Using well know models to advertise products or services creates arousal of interest if viewers identify such products or services with the models.

          Advertising practitioners/advertisers hold the view that when  celebrity models are used for promotion of goods or services, the loyalty of the garget audience is won.  The use of models in advertising stem, from the marketing concept and also emanates from the fact that  advertisers and advertising agencies realized the power influence and importance of associating notable personalities or even good looking people with product identity in order to achieve the following reasons:

1.       To attract the attention of prospective buyers.

2.       Improve the sales of the products by associating it with such models.

3.       To get buyers to be favourably disposed to the products.

4.       To propagate the brand

5.       To improve on the brand image

6.       To add value to advertising and communications  industry.

          World wide use of model in advertising has remind a remarkable instrument of increasing business activities because the appeals drawn will be very effective in advertising and will attract much concern where attitude change is involved.  As a result, some developments have been with eased in the advertising industry within the least twenty years in the area of supportive services as radio and television production, research and out door services.  These are activities and ventures where modeling services are required.

          To day, advertising industry use models in several ways either on television or advertisement on the pages and covers of various magazines, newspapers, journals calendars, bill-boards, and posters.

          Hogarth (1968) asserts that there are many different ways in which models are used  in advertising and further stated how complex the world of advertising can be if one stops to think about models used in advertising.  The models could be trained, untrained, celebrities, seductive and non-deductive.  But of all the models used. Celebrity models seem to be the most effective in advertising.

            White Hooper (1946) sees celebrity endorsements as finding either an authority star personality, or entertainer, who will associate himself/herself with your product, in some positive  fashion, that will enhance its   popularity with the television audience”.  This study which was conceived out of a sense of strong interest in models used in advertising, coupled with the fact that too little was known about models used in advertisements by the modeling agencies or advertising   agencies is intended to find out the influence of these models in advertisements.  Most of the advertising firms operate  through modeling agencies and

 

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