IMPACT OF APPRENTICESHIP ON MANPOWER DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA
“The Impact of Apprenticeship on Manpower Development in Nigeria” underscores greater number of points which needed to be grasped. In reality, during this work, a look is taken to correct bad impression and misconception problem that apprenticeship programmes is meant for the illiterates. It is against this background that extensive discussion is made on the formal apprenticeship system. The in-plant or in-house training programme is a worthwhile venture which almost every company and institution embark upon so as to meet the new demands, new problems and new challenges. Also, on-the-job training, a conjectural hypothesis is also formulated to identify, ascertain and analyse research problems and means devised to test it is Chi-square which determines the association between nominal variables. Meanwhile, the research approach or method investigation applied is face to face interaction with the personalities concerned that is through interviews, instrument used is structured questionnaire and this is made possible by a letter of introduction from the Head of Department. On the other hand, the major findings are based on the fact that theory and practice are indispensable. The two must go hand in hand to ensure efficiency and effectiveness. The major purpose of training and development do cause a change in employee, trainee or apprentice behaviour on job and ultimately improves the effectiveness of the organization/ company/institution. Growth and individual career objectives are achieved through effective training and apprentice can therefore reach their potentials without much ado. On a very serious note, Nigeria government should restructure the curriculum of the apprenticeship system through some of its programmes. National Manpower Board (NMB) should be reactivated and allowed to fully utilize its responsibilities. Then the final research report is highly formalized and cuts across every sphere of ones life.
Title page i
Approval page ii
Table of content vi
List of tables ix
1.1 Background of the study. 1
1.2 Statement of the problem. 3
1.3 Objective of the study 5
Research hypothesis 6
Scope of the study 8
Definition of terms 10
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 14
The problems and prospects of apprenticeship system in Nigeria 14
2.1 Factors necessary for the development of manpower in Nigeria 18
2.2 Manpower analysis, training and audit 23
2.3 The contribution of apprenticeship development and manpower needs in Nigeria 28
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY 35
3.1 Research design. 35
3.2 Area of the study 36
3.3 Population of the study 36
3.4 Sample and sampling procedure. 37
3.5 Instrument for data collection. 38
3.6 Validation of the instrument 39
3.7 Reliability of the instrument 40
3.8 Method of data collection 40
3.9 Method of data analysis 41
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS 43
4.1 Presentation and analysis of data 43
4.3 Summary of result 67
DISCUSSIONS, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSIONS 69
5.1 Discussion of results 69
5.4 Recommendations 70
5.5 Suggestion for further research 72
Table 4.2: Respondents responses on the ability of the apprentice or trainee to create impact on the apprenticeship development of manpower needs 44
Table4.3: Respondents responses on the opportunity of apprenticeship system in Nigeria for showing one’s entrepreneurial skill through self-employment and self-reliance. 45
Table 4.4: Respondent’s responses on whether the Apprenticeship system helps in reducing practically the rate of unemployment
Table 4.5: Respondent’s responses on the need to establish the apprenticeship training outfit in every, organization or company and other institution 46
Table 4.6: Respondents on whether the apprenticeship system and vocational training be kept in isolation 47
Table 4.9: Respondent’s responses that the apprenticeship system afford the chance of reduction of work Hazards, wastes and hence lower costs in the production process 48
Table 4.10: Respondents responses that apprenticeship programme/training brings about increase in quality and quality of output. 48
Table 4.11: Respondent’s responses that apprenticeship training and development meets up the manpower needs expected of in technical knowledge, skill, craft and trade. 49
Table 4.12: Respondent’s responses that the apprenticeship system does help in the upliftment of the dignity of labour 50
Table 4.13: Respondent’s responses that the apprenticeship and vocational training programm imparts maintenances skills and attitude to the apprentices 50
Table 4.14; Respondent’s responses on the propagation and ensuring that others benefit from this training outfit 51
Table 4.15: Respondent’s responses on the weekly, monthly or yearly stipend paid to the apprentice toward maintenance of his/her self whilst in training. 52
Table 4.16: Respondent’s responses on your company/organization/institution make any co-operate arrangement with school (s) to meet up theoretical concepts. 52
Table 4.17: Respondent’s responses on the reasons of young people prefer to be in a training employment programme rather than continue their studies in high school. 53
Table 4.18: Respondent’s responses that apprenticeship training programme be supplemented by additional education, provide the foundation for the development of first line managers, technicians, trainers and what have we 54
Table 4.19: Respondent’s responses on year company/organization/institution conduct specialized training for other corporate bodies or individuals. 55
Table 4.20: Respondents responses whether your company/organization/institution trainees do have equal access to equipment and tools with workers. 55
Table 4.21: Respondents responses on whether it is true that apprenticeship training costly and time consuming. 56
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY.
Let it be pointed out that the full research report on the topic under discussion would show how apprenticeship system and manpower needs contribute to Nigerian economy.
Again, an in-depth look has been taken to explore and identify whether the topic is research worthy and consequently to meet up with the challenges of time. Once more, the trend of business, economy, politic, technology and other special values of expertise in various fields of endeavour cannot be kept in isolation.
Therefore, several attempts should be made to write in detail some of the activities been embarked upon by different organizations, institutions, corporate bodies and what have we. They contribute immensely in the development of apprenticeship of manpower needs in Nigeria. This contribution would be found out in the course of research work.
It is against this and more background that this work might be made a daily companion by researching students, scholars, entrepreneurs and trainees.
In a nutshell, one is expected to know how the impact of apprenticeship development of manpower needs were to apprentices; be encouraged and welcomed by Nigerian Citizens. Some of the trends enumerated above would be a thing of past. Later all, the essence of acquiring knowledge is to impart it to one another. It means that putting interest on this apprenticeship system would in no doubt be of great advantage to the government and populace who are desirous to make both ends meet. At a time, non-challant attitude of some people under the illusion that apprenticeship system is meant for the illiterates or people of low status should henceforth disillusioned. In large, apprentice does not mean those who did not know how to read and write but the literate ones. This will later be discussed in detail in the subsequent chapter.
To this end, the easiest way forward to achieve and maintain the impact of apprenticeship on manpower development in Nigeria is by all and sundry placing hands on deck, not to be seen in a wrong perspective to be of great importance to certain individuals but of a mutual advantage of all. Even if you are not an apprentice, it should never be discouraged. We than God that n the contemporary institutions of higher learning that apprenticeship system is encouraged in the course termed “Entrepreneurial Development”. Lastly, to cope with the new demands, new problems and new challenges.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM.
One should not fail to acknowledge some of the specific aspects which give the researcher a great concern during the course of this research. To buttress up points, as it is often said in research methodology, be it in business, education, political science, to mention but a few that; “A problem well defined is half-solved”. Let it be made clear that there are many of them but the prominent ones would be given rapt attention.
It is however imperative to note that this research topic is believed to be varying or changing in nature. The question is why is it so? In this light, programmes undertaken in the name of apprenticeship scheme are numerous, mismanaged and unstable.
Oftenly, a new government, which has new resolution, comes into power, most of the times have different ideology or idiosyncratic approach to issues to affect the already established programmes and schemes. Today, some of the schemes run by National Directorate of Employment (NDE) are not operational as it was before due to fraudulent activities and other vices. Let us categorically state that some of the problems encountered do not arise from only government-established enterprise.
On the other hand, why is that greater number of apprentices is illiterates? The attributable factor could be an alternative source of acquiring formal education. It specifies the learning period depending on the nature of the trade usually at the shortest possible time. Lets say one month, three months, one year, two years and so on. At times regarded as not time consuming.
For better comprehension, formal apprenticeship system would be the focal point of the study which is the basis of manpower training and development in Nigeria with particular reference to Enugu metropolis. The informal apprenticeship system should not be given attention.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
There are certain outstanding objectives which are uppermost in mind and must be met. Interestingly, studying the impact of apprenticeship on manpower development in Nigeria with an in-depth look of events, individuals and institutions within the metropolis of Enugu; helps tremendously in effective and efficient management, sustainability of economic growth and development and skill acquisition (Drucker, 1986).
In order to shed more light on this, it is imperative to outline the aims of studying impact of apprenticeship on manpower development. Therefore, the overriding importance of the research work are given as follows:
1. To investigate if there are gains derived from being an apprenticeship after completion.
2. To find out whether apprenticeship development of manposer development are durable oriented, education oriented and management oriented.
3. To identify the upliftment and restoration of dignity of labour.
The formulation and use of hypothesis are very crucial due to its sensitization and drawing of attention towards problem solving in the apprenticeship development of manpower needs.
In this regard, a conjectural hypothesis would be drawn based on the following:
Ho: Apprenticeship system does not give a gainful employment after the completion.
H1: Apprenticeship systems do give a gainful employment after the completion.
Ho: Apprenticeship development of manpower development are not durable oriented, education oriented and management oriented.
H2: Apprenticeship development of manpower development are durable oriented, education oriented and management oriented.
Ho: There is no identification, upliftment and restoration of dignity of labour.
H3: There is identification, upliftment and restoration of dignity of labour.