MOTIVATING LABOUR FORCE FOR HIGHER PRODUCTIVITY
This project looked into motivating labour force for higher productivity using Zenith Bank Plc as a case study. Five research questions were formulated for the study all derived from the objective of the study. Questionnaire was used to gather data from thirty (30) respondents in Zenith Bank Plc, based on the research questions drown for the study. No sampling method was adopted as the population studied was manageable. Simple percentage method was used to analyze the data collected. The study revealed that motivation is a goal-oriented behaviour as it drives to higher productivity. Employees can be motivated through many ways in order to get the best in them. This can be done by identifying what constitutes the employees needs. The study also revealed that good working environment, well designed offices and staff training are needed by employees for overall effective job performance and achieving higher productivity. Finally, the study recommends among others that management should be sensitive to the needs of their workers and take palliative measures towards alleviating them. Organizations should adopt management style that create a sense of belonging; boost staff self-esteem. Effort should be made by management of organizations (with particular reference to Zenith Bank Plc) to motivate their staff through prompt promotions, provision of loans, job security and conducive working environment and ensure that workers are happy and ever enthusiastic about their job.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page- - - - - - - - - i
Approval - - - - - - - - - ii
Dedication - - - - - - - - iii
Acknowledgement - - - - - - iv
Abstract - - - - - - - - - v
Table of Contents - - - - - - - vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study - - - - 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem- - - - - 4
1.3 Objective of the Study - - - - - - 5
1.4 Research Questions- - - - - - 5
1.5 Research Hypothesis - - - - - - 6
1.6 Significance of the Study - - - - 7
1.7 Scope of the Study - - - - - - 8
1.8 Limitation of the Study - - - - - 8
1.9 Definition of Terms - - - - - - 8
Reference- - - - - - - - 10
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
Review of related literature - - - - 11
2.1 Theoretical Framework - - - - - 13
2.2 Definitions of Motivation- - - - - 14
2.3 Evolution of Motivational Concepts- - - 16
2.4 Motivation as Goal-Oriented - - - - 23
2.5 Theories of Work Motivation - - - - 26
2.5.1 Vroom’s Expectancy Theory - - - - 27
2.5.2 Adam’s Equity Theory (1964, 1965)- - - 28
2.5.3 Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory - - - 30
2.5.4 The Two-Factor (Motivation Hygiene Theory) - 38
2.5.5 The Carrot and Stick Theory - - - - 42
2.5.6 McClelland’s Need Theory of Motivation - - 43
2.5.7 Activation Theory - - - - - - 44
2.6 Management by Objectives as a Motivation Strategy 45
2.7 The Job as a Motivator - - - - - 48
2.8. Pay as a Motivator - - - - - - 51
2.9 Patton’s Identification of Managerial Motivators 52
Reference - - - - - - - - 55
CHAPTER THREE:RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design - - - - - - 56
3.2 Area of Study - - - - - - - 56
3.3 Sources of Data - - - - - - 57
3.3.1 Primary Data - - - - - - - 58
3.3.2 Secondary Data - - - - - -- 58
3.4 Population of the Study - - - - - 59
3.5 Sampling Size, Determination and Sampling
Techniques - - - - - - - 59
3.5 Methods of Data Collection - - - - 59
3.6 Methods of Data Collection - - - - 60
3.7 Validity of the Instrument - - - - 61
3.8 Reliability of the Instrument - - - - 62
3.9 Methods of Data Presentation and Analysis - 62
Reference- - - - - - - - 64
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS
4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis of Results - 65
4.2 Test of hypotheses - - - - - - 90
4.3 Discussion of Findings - - - - - 95
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Summary of the Study - - - - - 97
5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - 97
5.3 Recommendations - - - - - - 98
Bibliography - - - - - - - - 100
Appendixes - - - - - - - - 102
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
No matter how organized a business organization is, most of the problems faced by its’ executive are the effective management of its human resources to achieve organizational goals.
This means that all those who are responsible for the management of any organization must build into the entire system factors that will induce people to contribute as effectively and efficiently as possible. A manager does this by building into every possible aspect of the organizational climate those things which will induce people to act in desired ways.
Human motives are based on needs, whether consciously or subconsciously felt. Some are primary needs, such as physiological requirement for water, air, food, sex, self esteem, status, affiliation with others, accomplishment and self assertion. As can be readily seen, these needs vary in intensity and over time with various individuals. However, motives are inner states that energize, activate, or moves (hence motivation), and that directs or channels behavior towards goals".
In other words, "motivation" is a general term applying to the entire class of drives, desires, needs, wishes and similar forces. Likewise to say that managers motivate their subordinates is to say that they do these things which they hope will satisfy these drives and desires and induce the subordinates to act in a desired manner.
Motivation could be seen as those things that could be done to propel workers to put in their best to achieve organizational objectives. According to Kelly (1974) motivation "has to do with the forces that maintain and alter the direction, quality and intensity of behaviour". It is true that people participate in an organized enterprise and in all kind of groups in order to achieve some goals that they cannot attain as individuals. But this does not mean that they will necessarily work and contribute all they can to be sure that these goals are accomplished.
Motivation is a state which drives behaviour towards some goal. In other words, motivation has three aspects:
(a) A driving state within the organism that is set in motion by bodily needs, environmental stimuli, or mental events such as thoughts and memories;
(b) The behaviour aroused and directed by this state; and
(c) The goal towards which the behaviour is directed.
Motives as a consequence arouse behaviour and direct it towards appropriate goal(s). When we emphasize on these three aspects, motivation may be seen as the conditions, which influence the arousal, direction and maintenance of behaviours relevant in work setting.
Some employees considered job satisfaction as a result or part of motivation. Job satisfaction is the result of various attitudes possessed by an employee. In a narrow sense, these attitudes are related to the job and are concerned with such factors as wages, supervision, conditions of work, advancement opportunities, recognition of ability, fair evaluation of work, social relations on the job, prompt settlement of grievances and fair treatment by employer.
Motivation is one of the most effective tools used by management today to bring out the best in the work-force and achieve higher productivity. Motivation serves as a means of propelling the mind of an individual to direct his/her behaviour or activate towards the achievement of specific goals. The manager in an organization must manage time, money, equipment and other resource efficiently to achieve the objective of the organization. It is the effective management of the human resources that provides the harmony needed by these resources to create a viable working environment for the achievement of the corporate objectives.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Generally, the attitude of Nigerians towards work is not very encouraging. However, empirical studies of work attitudes and motivation in Nigeria have also indicated that many Nigerian workers do not perceive any satisfactory relationship between their efforts and their organization’s reward for their efforts. To this end where favouritism, nepotism, discrimination, ethnic or clannish considerations dominate the hiring and firing procedures and in the promotion and transfer exercises, motivation to perform will likely be low or non-existent. This is what contributes greatly to the low standard of living of Nigerians.
Organizations where workers are well motivated have been found to excel far better and achieving higher productivity than their counterparts who regarded motivation as a mere show off.
It is against this background that the researcher is investigating into the concept of motivating labour force for higher productivity, using Zenith Bank Plc as a case study.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
It is said that an undertaking without an objective is an attempt to pave way for unproductive venture. It is in this regard that the objectives of this study include the following:
(i) To find out whether motivation can enhance productivity.
(ii) To find out whether lack of motivation leads to staff poor attitude to work.
(iii) To identity the roles of motivation in bringing out the best of labour force and how to improve workers attitudes towards work.
(iv) To look into the various motivational techniques, theories and their relevance to organizational productivity.
(v) To look into the various management style, responsibility, authority, advancement and growth on the job.