The Effect Of Worklife-balance On Employee Performance

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Abstract

“Effects of work- life balance to performance of employees” have become an issue to different scholars, this made the researcher of this work to carry on a research on the topic, with reference to Aqua-Rapha Industry. In order to achieve a reasonable outcome based on the research, the researcher’s major objective was to examine the effects of work life balance on the employee’s performance. Other specified objective were to examine various Work-Life balance practices that exist in Aqua-Rapha Industry, to identify work-Life balance challenges faced by employees of Aqua-Rapha Industry etc. For the objective to be achieved, the researcher made use of questionnaire and interview to obtain information from the respondents. Textbooks, journals and newspaper were used to obtain more ideas from other scholars and authors. The population used from the industry were 200 respondents. The sample size were 133. The Taro-Yamene statistical tool were used for the determination of the sample size. Tables and simple percentage formula were used for the data analysis. through the analysis, findings were achieve as thus: the company practice both team-building work/exercise, work free day(s) and short-break as work-life balance in Aqua-Rapha industry,  the company actually practice work-life balance and the practice of the of it in the company add to productivity of Aqua-Rapha industry  at a greater extent etc. based on the findings, the researcher  recommend that If  team-building work/exercise, work free day(s) and short-break as work-life balance in Aqua-Rapha industry helps the management to achieve the needed goals, they should continue the practice and also apply other necessary practices in order to help them to increase in productivity. As the researcher found that unhelpful attitude and high stress levels are the challenges faced by employees of Aqua-Rapha Industry the management of the company should try their best to reduce these challenges because it may deter effectiveness and efficiency in working morale of the employees in the organization.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Title page                                                                                                    ­i

Approval page                                                                                                    ii

Certification                                                                                               iii

Dedication                                                                                                  iv

Acknowledgements                                                                                     v

Table of contents                                                                                                vi

Abstract                                                                                                      ix

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION                                                         1

1.1 Background of the study                                                                         1

1.2 Statement of the Problem                                                                        4

1.3 Objectives of the Study                                                                           5

1.4 Research questions-                                                                                 6

1.5 Research Hypothesis                                                                               6

1.6 Significance of the Study                                                                        7

1.7 Scope of the Study                                                                                 7

1.8 Limitation of the study                                                                           8

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Introduction                                                                                          9

2.2 Conceptual Framework-                                                                       10

2.3 Job Stress                                                                                             11

2.4 Work family conflict                                                                                      12

2.5 The Concept of Employee performance                                               13

2.6 Productivity concept                                                                                              14

2.7 Relationship between Work-Life Balance and Employee Performance          15

2.8 Leave policy                                                                                         16

2.9 Service delivery                                                                                    18

2.10 Theoretical frame                                                                                19

2.11 Consequences of Imbalance in work-life                                             22

2.12 Barriers to achieve a work-life balance                                                        23

2.13 Summary of the review                                                                      24

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLGY

3.1 Research Design                                                                                        27

3.2 Area of the study                                                                                       27

3.3 Population of Study                                                                        27

    1. Sample/Sampling Techniques                                                            28
    2.  

29

Instrument for data collection   

 

    1. Method of Data Collection                                                                 30
    2. Validation of data instrument                                                            30
    3. Reliability of the Instrument                                                               30
    4. Method of Data Analysis                                                                   31

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.1 Data Presentation and Analysis                                                           32

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1 Summary of Findings                                                                                     47

5.2 Conclusion                                                                                           49

5.3 Recommendations                                                                                50

5.4 Suggestions for Further Studies                                                            51

References                                                                                                  52

Appendix: Letter                                                                                        56

Appendix: Questionnaire                                                                                     57

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

    1. Background Of The Study

Work-life balance is an important topic in both professional business practice and academic research. Work-life balance (WLB) has become a popular research area in different fields such as sociology, psychology, human resource management, organization studies, and gender studies. Majority of researches on the correlation between work and family life refers to Work Life Balance and organization policies, Work Life Balance and organization culture, Work Life Balance and Human Resource management, Work Life Balance and work commitment, Work Life Balance and absenteeism, Work Life Balance and gender equality, Work Life Balance and family life, and many more (Casper, Eby, Bordeaux, Lockwood & Lambert, 2007).

          There are a number of studies examining Work Life Balance  and employees performance. On the process of the research, it was noticed that this work life balance means different thing to different people. For instance, Clarke, Koch and Hill (2004) state that Work Life Balance is an “equilibrium or maintaining overall sense of harmony in life”. Work Life Balance can also be describe as “satisfaction and good functioning at work and at home, with a minimum of role conflict”. The focus on the domains of work and family is vital as family and work are regarded as the most important elements of everyone’s life, and any competing demands from work and family life cause conflicts and negatively affect the wellbeing of workers (Frone, 2000). Therefore, good Work Life Balance and positive performance can be achieved when there is no role conflict, and when people are satisfied with their work and family roles.

          The literature shows that common consequences of poor Work Life Balance are depression and distress, leading to lower productivity, poorer work quality, higher absenteeism and staff turnover (Seligman, 2011; Hill, 2005).           Work-family research has generally been dominated by the study of family and work role interference. However, work and family role enhancement studies seem to be growing in recent years (Grzywacz& Marks, 2000). Work and family role interference suggests that responsibilities in separate domains such as work and family compete with each other in terms of limited time, psychological resources and physical energy, which leads to negative outcomes in both areas (Greenhaus&Beutell, 1985). In contrast, work and family role enhancement suggests that participation in multiple roles can lead to better functioning in other life domains (Barnett & Rivers, 1996). Therefore, this study focuses on investigating the effect of Work Life Balance on the Employees performance in Aqua-Rapha Industry.

 

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF AQUA RAPHA INDUSTRY

The Aqua Rapha industry was established on 15 December 2004, by its sole owner Rev. Father Ejike Mbaka. His ability to generate money out of little or nothing and his interest in business as a whole made him engage in small business partnership dealing on the distribution of household goods. The owner made the feasibility study. The report is not too far from what became the reality. The feasibility study was good, only that there were few under and over estimations due to the on-going inflationary trend in the country and reforms in the economic system of the country National Agency  for Food and Drugs Administration and control (NAFDAC).

The factory is located at 9th mile opposite Nigeria Brewery Plc in Enugu State.   The factory is located in this area because it’sproximity to the source of the raw materials for the productions.   The major raw materials used in the production of sachet/packaged water are sourced locally.   The manufacturer employs the services of different professionals in manufacturing of the packaged water.

These professional from different field/department work together to ensure the success of desired quantities that will ensure the company’s targets, objectives and goals. The purchasing department plays their roles by getting all the necessary requirements for the production.   The factory men will organize the raw materials and use it in production of complete products.   After production, they will communicate stores and stores will pack those products and communicate marketing for sales thereby realizing funds what the finance department will keep for the enhancement of the company. The programme could have taken of long before now, but the company has a serious financial constraint. The availability and cheapness of the major raw materials also effected the choice of products. Aqua Rapha industry produces packaged water.  Its product capacity is at minimum of Eight hundred and fifty (850) bags that contains (20) sachets, per day.   Given an effective annual working period of 240 days the output is modestly placed at 203, 760 (Two hundred and three thousand, seven hundred and sixty) bags per year. The management of Aqua Rapha Industry focus attention on the human side of the enterprises.   In other words the behavioural aspect of management is premium.   The proprietor of Aqua Rapha Industry believes that by rewarding workers adequately they tend to work harder and put in their best to achieve the organization set goals.

    1. Statement Of The Problem

Previous researches showed that there was lack of work flexibility, high work pressure and longer working hours that stress out many workers in the organizations, there is reduction of job performance and productivity as well as causing broken homes. In the community, there is a growing concern that the quality of home and community life is deteriorating.  These have resulted to poor employee input and performance in the work place. This is because most employees find it difficult to properly balance family life, and also have difficulties in managing tasks at workplace. This therefore results to poor employee performance.  Base on the research taken, an indication shows that when people spend too many hours at work, and spend less with their families, their health and work performance begin to deteriorate. There are various explanations for this associated with affluence, as lack of local resources and facilities. In addition, the pressures and demands of work, in different which are cause by improper examination in work- life- balance of the organization, poor identification of challenges face by employees, improper identification of the influence of imbalance Work-Life practices on organizational performance etc.    

    1. Objectives of The Study 

   The objectives of the study are as follows:

  1. To examine various Work-Life balance practices that exists in Aqua-Rapha Industry.
  2. To identify work-Life balance challenges faced by employees of Aqua-Rapha Industry
  3. To identify the influence of imbalance Work-Life practices on organizational performance of Aqua-Rapha Industry.
  4. To identify ways of improving proper Work-Life balance practices amongst employees of Aqua-Rapha Industry.
    1.  Research Questions
    1. What are the various Work-Life Balance practices that exist in Aqua-Rapha Industry?
    2.  What are the Work-Life Balance challenges faced by employees of Aqua-Rapha Industry?
    3. What are the influences of imbalance work-life practices on organizational performance?
    4. In what ways can proper Work-Life-Balance practices be enhanced to boost performance in Aqua-Rapha Industry?
    1. Research Hypotheses

1Ho: There are no existence of Work-life Balance practices in Aqua-Rapha      Industry.

Hi: There are existence of Work-life Balance practices in Aqua-Rapha      Industry.

2Ho: There are no existence of  work-life balance challenges  in Aqua-Rapha     Industry

Hi: There are existence of  work-life balance challenges  in Aqua-Rapha     Industry

3Ho:There are no influences of imbalance work-life practices on organizational    performance

  Hi: There are  influences of imbalance work-life practices on  organizational     performance.

 

4Ho: There are no proper Work-Life-Balance practices for boosting of    performance   in Aqua-Rapha Industry.

 

Hi: There are  proper Work-Life-Balance practices for boosting of    performance   in Aqua-Rapha Industry.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study seeks to bring out the various work-life balance practices which Aqua-Rapha Industry has undertaken to increase its productivity and contribute its quota in the economic development of the community where it operates.

This study will therefore help enlighten management of various organizations of the various effects of work-life balance practices on the performance of employees in an organization.

The study will also bring out specifically, the work-life balance practices which the industry has been able to make available to its employees.

It also seeks to bring out the level of encouragement and motivation the industry has given to its employees to work effectively, among others.

The importance of this study is therefore to highlight the various employee work-life balance practices and how it affects the productivity of an organization.

  1. 7 Scope Of The Study

The scope of the research is limited to Aqua-Rapha Industry 9th Mile Corner Enugu. The study would rely on the industry’s for vital information as well as other information from secondary sources.

1.8 Limitations Of The Study

  1. The researcher encountered a limitation in regards to availability of information. Thus due to the industry’s working ethics, the researcher could not get access to vital information since it was treated as confidential.
  1. The researcher experienced poor response from the respondents and it lead to the delay of the work.
  2. The  targeted respondent’s number was not attained since some employees were on leave.
  3. Inadequate funds and availability of time also became a limitation

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