1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Desktop computer is frequently used in our today’s society. It is composed of parts like monitor, mouse, keyboard and system unit.
The computer box itself known as system unit is also called cabinet or chassis. It is the container that houses other components such as motherboard, RAM, interface or add-on cards, switch mode, power supply, drives, ports etc.
A good knowledge of how the computer is made up, will enable one to use it more effectively. Most people thought the system box to be the CPU, but a good understanding will help users to know it better. It is only when all the necessary components are assembled together that we can get a computer system. Having a good knowledge of the hardware components or parts of the system unit or chassis or box will enable the user to replace it when any of them breaks down. To understand, identify and know the basic hardware parts of the system unit is the purpose of this project.
It is good for one to understand that inside the system box, there are components that are connected together which make up the computer. Different kinds of parts for connecting external devices are found outside the system casing. Open bays are for connecting optical devices such as DVD and CD-Rom drive are also found on the front side. A small button is found near the drives door which can be pressed to eject the tray where you can place the CD or DVD disc. Same button can also be pressed to take-in the tray. It can also be operated from the system’s windows operating system. In some cases USB port is also found at the front of the casing which allows your flash drives, printers, Ipod, Ipads, Iphones and external plug and play USB devices to be connected into your computer. At the front panel one can also see ports for camera, memory media reader. Here you can slot in your memory card containing your memory storage removed from the camera or the phone and you insert it into the computer so that the image stored on it can be accessible.
The rear-part of the system unit box are other connectors like parallel port for printers, more USB ports, PS/2 ports for mouse, keyboard, serial ports and others.
These ports are used for connection of the peripheral devices (i.e. the non-essential parts of the computer).
These peripherals include external devices like monitors, speakers, micro-phones etc. At the rear is also found the Ethernet (NIC) port for connecting the computer to the network.
When you open the system unit casing by unscrewing, you will see some individual components connected via cables or plugged directly into large board attached to the side of the casing. This board is the motherboard and is used to connect all the individual devices inside the computer box. The power supply unit also provides power supply to these components as they are connected to it.
The memory (RAM) and the microprocessor is also seated fixed on the motherboard. The interface or add-on cards are also connected as they communicate with the board where it is properly fixed.
1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVE
The aims and objectives of this project work is to put down the plans and procedure for assembling a desktop computer system that is functional and can satisfy the need of a high configuration system. It should be purchased component by components e.g. the casing, motherboard, RAM, processor, power supply unit, the drives etc and be coupled together.
Nevertheless, the major part of this project is planning what you are going to buy and how you can build them up into a functional computer system.
1.3 JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROJECT
Computer system is an intricate machine as a result, many a times it is proved difficult to explain to the undergraduates of higher institution. So this project is a better idea of solving the problem. The knowledge acquired on the course of this work will enable the students understand better what the computer is, in this computer age. Carrying out such project will also overcome the barrier/limitation facing Nigeria undergraduate on the knowledge of computer. This will also help many Nigerians to be ICT compliance.
1.4: SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
This project’s scope covers all areas including identifying components/parts of the computer system, purchasing them and assembling them together into a functional computer system.
It also involves replacing any damaged parts during breakdown. Servicing and maintenance of the computer system is not excluded.
Furthermore, knowledge for hardware upgrading and software installation and upgrading is also not exempted in this scope. By this project a proficient computer technician emerges.
1.5: LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
One of the challenges I encountered during this project research was the scarcity of/unavailability of some components in the market. Nevertheless, some of these components are exorbitant even when you see them in the market.
Further limiting factors that I encountered are explained below:
(a). TIME CONSTRAINT: The time to carry out this project is short such a research cannot be completed in a semester let alone this few weeks. Researching at the library needs time.
(b). FINANCIAL CONSTRAINT: As a student, I was not financially buoyant. I was affected because there was not enough money to buy components, browse the internet, pay and gather other researching materials that will certify this project a research work.
Nevertheless, the work added to my academic work load in the campus, serving as a great constraint, yet all these could not hamper the research work.
However, the project, Assembly of desktop computer system has sub-units such as
(1). The system casing
(2). The motherboard
(3). The Central Processing Unit (CPU).
(4). The drivers
(5). The Input/output Unit.
(6). The Software.
1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS
1. COMPUTER: A computer is a programmable machine which can accept data as input, process data, store data and generate output as information which helps the user in quick decision making. The main components of digital computer include CPU (Central Processing Unit), memory, input/output devices etc.
2. Central Processing Unit (CPU): The CPU is the brain of the computer. It executes user programs and controls memory and input /output devices.
3. Hard Disk drive (HDD): It is the main storage device used for storing data and information as well as computer programs. This information can be retrieved by the user at will. The hard drive is made up of a rotating disk that is coated with magnetic material.
1.7 PROJECT REPORT ORGANIZATION
Six Chapters were covered in the course of the design and development of this project work. The Chapters and their contents are as follows:
Chapter One is the introductory chapter that gives the aims/objective, scope, limitations, justification for the project, etc.
Chapter Two contains the Literature Review. It contains the different related works done by several authors with dates. It also states the discussions on some limitations encountered while carrying out this research work.
Chapter Three discussed in details the practical system analysis based on what the desktop computer system will do when fully constructed/assembled and installed. It also states the concept of analysis, requirement analysis, and procedure for the design analysis.
Chapter Four discussed about the design/preliminary design of how the system will achieve its function. Software installation, design and implementation was also discussed.
Chapter Five states the references, evaluation and cost analysis.
Chapter Six contains the summary of the project details. This chapter is detailed expressing the contributions of the project, achievement and problems for further enhancement, development and advanced discussion on this topic.