CAUSES OF POOR PERFORMANCES AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN NIGERIA AND SOLUTION THROUGH P4C
This study looked into the problems facing the Nigerian education system. These problems are also the causes of poor performances among secondary school students in Nigeria. Some of the causes of poor performances among students includes; lack of qualified teachers, poor attitude of the government and influential people towards secondary school education, lack of empowerment and motivation for students and teachers, faulty curriculum, poor administration and many other factors. Having highlighted the causes of poor performances among students, the researcher proffered better solutions to solve these problems confronting secondary school education and the chief solution is introducing ‘COIP4C’ an educative approach that is learner centered which helps children to be self empowered and self actualized.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page - - - - - - - - - i
Approval page - - - - - - - - ii
Dedication - - - - - - - - iii
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - iv
Abstract - - - - - - - - - v
Table of contents - - - - - - - vi
1.0 Introduction - - - - - - - 1
1.1 Background of the study - - - - - 1
1.2 Statement of the problems - - - - - 3
1.3 Research questions - - - - - - - 4
1.4 Aims of the study - - - - - - 4
1.5 Significance of the study - - - - - 5
1.6 Target audience - - - - - - - 6
1.7 Assumptions and operational definitions “A” - 7
2.0 Review of related literature - - - - - 8
2.1 Meaning of Andragogy - - - - - 8
2.2 Comparison of pedagogy and andragogy - - 11
3.0 Expose of the problem - - - - - 13
3.1 Problems with education reforms in Nigeria - 13
3.2 Contemporary educational issues in Nigeria - 24
3.3 Nigerian education as it affects manpower
development in Nigeria - - - - - 25
3.5 The problem of curriculum development - - 35
3.6 Problem of wrong assessment and evaluation - 37
3.7 Problem of lack of empowerment - - - 38
3.8 Problem of teaching methodology - - - 42
4.0 Implication of study - - - - - - 45
4.1 Advantages of Applying andragogical system
of education - - - - - - - 45
4.2 The analytical implication of pedagogy - - 51
4.3 Community of inquiry method education is andragogy 58
4.4 Andragpgy community of inquiry is philosophic 59
4.5 The andragogical community of inquiry is dialogic 62
4.6 Facilitators role in the andragogical community
of inquiry environment - - - - - 63
5.0 Conclusion - - - - - - - 67
5.1 Main finding of the study - - - - - 67
5.2 Implication of the findings - - - - - 68
5.3 Recommendation - - - - - - 69
5.4 Limitation of the study - - - - - 70
5.5 Suggestion for further studies - - - - - 70
References - - - - - - - - 71
1.1 BACKGROND OF THE STUDY
The need for an authentic education has warranted the need for the identification of the patterns or methods of the various options of educational methodology.
Educational methodologies are entrenched in the philosophies or thinking behind education. There are two main philosophical concept of education generally adopted in the world. They are the pedagogical philosophy (teacher- centered or subject matter instructional based) and the andragogical (or child-centered) philosophy.
There are equally two major groups of curriculum thinkers who influence the use of these philosophies they are the traditionalist curriculum thinkers and the progressive curriculum thinkers.
The traditionalists' philosophy of education is based on the notion that education is a product or item that could be transplanted or transmitted from the teacher to the learner/ child regardless of the latter's interest, inspiration or inclinations while the progressives ideology or philosophy
The Andragogical method of teaching is child- centered method, that emphasizes experiences and knowledge. The focal point of activity in the Andragogical method of education is the child. The Andragogist is like a mid- wife who helps the expectant mother and the unborn baby to ensure and achieve safe delivery. The mid-wife will do everything within her limit to assist the pregnant woman but could not assume the position of the woman nor take her place, she will advise, encourage and motivate her into action but cannot do the action by herself. She could protect the privacy of the woman. to make her comfortable and shy free to open up herself for the task before them. She can prevent men from entering into the maternity room where the delivery takes place.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM.
1. Nigeria's education· curriculum negates and neglects those for whom it was meant to serve.
2. Nigeria's educational system is pedagogical by design and dysfunctional in practice.
3. Nigeria's educational system suffers functional stagnation.
4. There is an overwhelming evidence of lowering of standards
5. That .majority of Nigerian students now resort to examination malpractices and other forms of ethical practices in order to pass examinations.
6. The litany of frustrations faced by the young school leavers in Nigeria are seen through the activities they engage in as soon as they left school.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. In view of the conventionality of pedagogical method of education in Nigeria, How much is the andragogical method known in Nigeria?
2. Is the educational method in practice mandatory or optional?
3. Which among the two educational slants stands to benefit the people more?
4. Which of the two will enhance teaching / learning programmes?
5. What advantages do Andragogy has over pedagogy and vice versa considering the cost effectiveness and intensiveness of the two in terms of time, money, and space?
1.4 AIMS OF THE STUDY
1. This research work hopes to look into the causes of academic backwardness of students.
2. It will look into the problems of education in the Nigeria.
3. It will do al1 analytical study of pedagogical and andragogical methods of education in Nigeria.
4. It will compare and contrast the two methods with a view to making recommendations for solutions to the problems.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The importance of this research work cannot be overemphasized because it will help to address the following educational problems.
1. It will address the problem of lack of interest on the part of students and high rate of school dropout.
2. It will address the problems associated with teacher-centeredness as is evident in our education curriculum.
3. It will address the problem of over-reliance on conventionality and tradition in our educational system.
4. It will address the problem of lack of motivation for the students and teachers in our schools.
5. It will expose the problems associated with pedagogical method of education.
6. It will help to open the eyes of our people to know about other alternative to teaching / learning procedure.
7. The study will expose Nigerians to the gains of Andragogical community of inquiry method of education.
1.6 THE TARGET AUDIENCE
The target audience of this research are:
1. The education mangers
2. The educational curriculum planners
3. The education stake - holders
4. Teachers and students in the secondary and primary schools
6. Governments both states, federal and L.G.A.
1.7 ASSUMPTIONS AND OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS "A". ASSUMPTIONS
i. It has been assumed that the curriculum of Nigerian education is deficient.
ii. It is assumed that the deficiency of Nigeria's educational curriculum has been responsible for the low standard of education
iii. That average students in Nigeria had been affected psychologically by the apparent lack of motivation from the government.
iv. It is assumed that the ineffectiveness of our school curriculum manifests in the high rate of decline of high school enrollment and dropout in Nigeria.