Teacher Motivation Factors Influencing School Management Practices In Public Secondary Schools In Machakos

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ABSTRACT

The purpose of the study was to determine the influence of teachermotivation factors on school management practices in public secondary schools in Machakos county Kenya. The specific objectives were to find out how teacher motivation factors which include desire for professional growth, monetary reward, welfare of students and attainment of school goals influence school management practices in public secondary schools in Machakos County; The findings of the study may be of importance to the ministry of education as they might get to know the effect of teacher on school management practices in public secondary school in Kenya. The study targeted 212 schools, 212 principals and 986 teachers. The study was guided by Goal setting theory by Locke(1986). The study adopted a descriptive survey. The study used mixed methodology to gather information. The study employed stratified sampling technique to sample 21 schools, purposive sampling to sample 21 principals and simple sampling technique to sample 99 teachers. The study findings found out that job satisfaction affects employee motivation. From the findings of the study, it was concluded that job satisfaction, reward systems, professional development and work situational-factors affect employee motivation. The study recommends that schools should ensure that the school environment is conducive for teachers to ensure their motivation and satisfaction with their jobs. This can be achieved by ensuring that there are adequate teaching and learning resources. The study finally recommends that another study be done in other districts on the effect of school leadership style on teacher motivation which was not the concern of the study


CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

 1.1 Background to the Study

 Motivation is a complex and dynamic construct that is a function of the past, present and future and is dependent on both the whole group and the individual (Linnenbrink &   Pintrich, 2002). However, in any motivational process one strategy may not work on all individuals. Moreover, Black and Deci (2000) observe that there are some elements of social contexts which may influence reaction from only a given group. In most cases, motivation waxes and wanes. According to Dörnyei (2005), this is mainly due to the fact that it is dynamic, situational and psychologically experienced. However, with no motivation, individuals may tend to experience chronic drops which over a long-term might be a reflection of teacher burn-out. In this line, some of the elements or factors that may be used to note the prevalence of teacher de-motivation may include but not limited to emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and low personal accomplishment (Grayson & Alvarez, 2007; Skaalvik & Skaalvik, 2009).

 The motivating strategies that may be employed towards the teachers may be directed at individual levels or directed at the teachers in a given set up as a whole. Moreover, from a group point of view, the motivational efforts may be in the form of their design of the environment, direct intervention, or explicit instructional and/or interpersonal strategies (Hardre & Sullivan, 2002). An ideal result of teachers’ motivating efforts is the individual’s intrinsic and self-regulated motivation. Effort is intrinsic when teaching is driven from within, and it is self-regulated when the teacher plans, monitors and adapts reasons, choices and actions systematically in order to optimize learning (Schunk & Ertmer, 2000). The effectiveness of a particular motivational strategy is reflected in the self-regulated behavior of teachers and results from their experiences, coupled with their proximal, which is their point of attraction immediately and futuristic goals (Miller & Brickman, 2004).

 The effectiveness of motivational strategy may be measured based on its ability to influence teacher retention in schools. In the recent times, schools globally have been experiencing a lot of challenges in relation to retaining their teachers within school. For instance, in the US, Graziano (2005) observed that every year, U.S. schools hired more than 200,000 new teachers for that first day of class. By the time summer rolls around, at least 22,000 have quit. Even those who make it beyond the trying first year aren't likely to stay long: about 30 percent of new teachers flee the profession after just three years, and more than 45 percent leave after five. In line, Dill and Stafford (2008) indicated that about 50 percent of the new teachers leave the profession within the first five years of teaching. In Nigeria, teacher motivation is a factor for classroom effectiveness and school improvement. Teacher motivation enhances classroom effectiveness and improves schools (Ofoegbu, 2004).

 Teacher motivation is a major determinant of students’ performance in national examinations. In Zimbabwe, Chireshe and Shumba (2011) argued that the need for motivated teachers is reaching crisis proportions in today‘s technological society undergoing fundamental changes. They add that a motivated and dedicated staff is considered as a cornerstone for the effectiveness of a school in facing the various challenges and problems posed to it. It is therefore important to investigate the factors affecting teacher motivation in order to revert the situation.

 In addition, young people studying to be teachers rarely know if they will succeed as a teacher. This forces highly qualified teachers to move elsewhere looking for 'greener' pastures. Additionally, lack of feedback on how best they are working makes them not encouraged to work harder (Ochama & Okoth, 2015). Charalambous (2009) urges that certain policies are not clear to the teachers. Worse still, the differentiation that exists among teachers in secondary schools in Kenya is not only in the teachers' grades but also the subjects taught. These differences are in the terms of services for instance the Arts-based graduate teachers are not paid the same salaries as their colleagues who teach the Sciences and Languages (Leonard, 2004). Such issues have brought about high teacher attrition in the country.

 

Kenyan teachers have been demoralized by the Government's interventions in various challenges causing teacher de-motivation. For instance the Government, in a bid to retain the special subjects teachers; gave them three increments on their salary different from their Art based counterparts (Kasirye, 2009). In secondary schools, ranking of motivators has been done around the eight factors namely remuneration, the work itself, working conditions and environment, job security, school leadership and supervision, promotion, interpersonal relations and recognition (Pratheepkanth, 2011). It is upon this background that this study was aimed at investigating the teacher motivation factors influencing school management practices in public secondary schools in Machakos.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

 

Are all teachers motivated in the same way? If not do boards of management respond to the variations appropriately. In every institution of learning in any country, motivation is extremely important in order to make teachers satisfied and be committed to their work for better performance. Teachers’ commitment to work helps to realize the attainment of educational goals through proper motivation. A good motivated and committed teacher dedicates all his effort on his job. That is to say, he would prepare, teach and assess students’ work on time and take his responsibility as his top most priority (Aaronson, Lisa & William, 2007).

 

According to the report of the Machakos District Education Office (2011) the teachers’ commitment in public secondary school in teaching is grossly inadequate. This is reflected in form of rampant absenteeism, late coming, failure to assess students’ work in time, part-time teaching in more than two schools to top up their salary, need, and satisfaction, others even teach on Saturdays and Sundays while some at night which result into examination malpractice by students and low performances among others, have always raised a public concern.

 According to Jackson (1997), minimal motivation among teachers has been manifested in teacher unwillingness to participate in school activities, poor attendance, unexpected absence, late coming, lack of additional training, uncreative and non-stimulating teaching, lack of interest in meetings, unhelpful attitudes when assistance is needed, occurrence of hold-ups because deadlines aren‘t kept, resistance to contributing more than what is required of them and development of arguments between colleagues. To avoid or overcome this, steps must be taken to ensure that the teachers are committed and satisfied with their job although there are other causes for the above, motivation will be taken as an upper hand in increasing teachers ‘commitment to work, the motivational factors should be adequately attended to. The lack of motivation is perceived to be determined by different factors such as work environment and the rewards for teachers. Lack of motivation among teachers is believed to have affected the performance of students in secondary schools in Kenya. It against this premise that the researcher sought to answer how do school management respond to various teacher motivations?

 

1.3 Purpose of the Study

 The main purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of teacher motivation factors on school management practices in public secondary schools in Machakos County Kenya.

 

1.4 Objectives of the Study

 The specific objectives of the study were to:

 i.         Find out how the desire for professional growth among teachers influences management practice in public secondary schools in Machakos, Kenya.

 

ii.         Determine the extent to which the desire for monetary rewards among teachers contributes to management practices in public secondary schools in Machakos County.

iii.         Establish the influence of student welfare on management practices in public secondary schools in Machakos County.

iv.        Find out the extent to which teachers’ desire to achieve school goals contribute to management practices in public secondary schools in Machakos County.


1.5 Research Questions

 

The study was to answer the following research questions:

 i.        To what extent does the desire for professional growth among teachers influences management practice in public secondary schools in Machakos, Kenya?

ii.         How does the desire for monetary rewards among teachers contribute to management practices in public secondary schools in Machakos County?

 

iii.         What is the influence of student welfare on management practices in public secondary schools in Machakos County?

iv.        How does teachers’ desire to achieve school goals contribute to management practices in public secondary schools in Machakos County?

 

1.6 Scope of the Study

 

The study investigated how teacher motivation factors influence management practices in public secondary schools in Machakos County. The study was limited to Machakos County which borders Makueni County to the South, Nairobi and Kiambu Counties to the west, Embu to the North and Kitui to the East and Kajiado to the south west with similar climatic conditions. The study studied teachers of all ages, gender and sex on permanent employment terms due to institutional differences where the study could have been done in preschool, primary schools, vocational training institutions and universities in Machakos County but it was only confined to public secondary schools in Machakos County. Many factors other than teacher motivation do influence management practices but this study was confined itself to how the desire to motivate teachers influence management practices.

 

1.7 Significance of the Study

 

The study was significant to the following categories of people:

Ministry of Education: The findings of the study may be of importance to the ministry of education as they might get to know the influence of teacher motivation on school management practices in public secondary school in Kenya which may contribute to knowledge of how motivation among teachers is utilized by school management for performance improvement. By this, the Ministry may use the information to come up with the ways of motivating teachers

 

Teachers: The findings may also be of importance to teachers as they may get to know how different factors influencing teacher motivation. This might help them in deciding to adjust to the prevailing situations to help the school in attainment of its goals.

 

The school management: The study may be of importance to the management of the schools as it highlighted on the factors influencing teacher motivation. By this information, the management of the schools can come up with better ways of improving teacher motivation which may in turn be translated to improved educational outcomes in public secondary schools.

 

1.8 Assumptions of the Study

 

This study was based on the assumption that:

 i.        Teacher motivation influences the school management practice in public secondary schools in Machakos County.

ii.         Teachers in secondary school are expressive and can make their feelings and interests explicit to the schools management.

1.9 Limitations of the Study

 

According to Best and Kahn (2006) limitations are conditions beyond the control of, the researcher that may place restrictions on the conclusions of the study and their application to other situations. Due to the fact that this study was done in one county that is located in a rural setting the findings from this study may not be generalizable to other geographical areas especially the urban areas where access to amenities differs and also regions that teacher motivation is not influenced by school management practices. The study was also limited to only four variables that characterize teacher motivation namely desire for professional growth, monetary reward, students’ welfare and achievement of school goals leaving out other possible variables.

 

1.10 Delimitations of the Study

 

All teachers, and school heads are important in improving performance in the subject. However, it was not possible to involve all teachers, and principals in public secondary schools in the County, thus to mitigate this, the study sampled 10 percent of the population in the study area.

 

1.11 Operational Definition of Terms

 

Development Practices refer set standards of teacher in-service training foradditional professional training.

 

Motivation refers to the act of making teachers feel that their work is recognizedand valued and at the same time they get the rewards worth their input.

 Promotion Practices refer act of changing any teacher from one position to a biggerone in the professional ranking.

Reward System refers to the compensation given to teachers for the services theyrender in terms of salary and monetary incentives, materials such as lamps, blankets, clothes, shopping vouchers and trips.

 Students’ welfare refers to ensuring that educational outcomes are met throughstudents’ academic achievement.

 Supervision Practices refer to set laws that govern the overseeing of teachers’instructional process in schools.

 Work Situations refers to the school environment in which teachers teach


 

 

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Teacher Motivation Factors Influencing School Management Practices In Public Secondary Schools In Machakos

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