Influence Of Hawking Time And Study Habits On Junior Secondary School Students Academic Performance In Social Studies, In Nasarawa State, Nigeria

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 ABSTRACT

This study is entitled: “Influence of Hawking Time and Study Habit on academic performance in social studies in Nasarawa state. The purpose of the study was to identify the study habit and the influence of hawking time on academic performance of students. The study was guided by six research questions and six hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 significance level. Descriptive research design of survey type was adopted in this study. The target population of the study were all the JSS three students who involved in street hawking in Nasarawa North Senatorial District. The total population is 965 students of both sexes. A sample of 284 students was drawn from the population through purposive sampling technique. The sample size was determined by applying Yamane`s (1967) formula of determining sample size. Two instruments: questionnaire and test items were used to obtained data for the study. Data collected from the study were analysed using frequency, simple percentage, mean, standard deviation, t-test and ANOVA. The study found among others that:Junior secondary school Social Studies students had average study habit base on their gender and age; Junior secondary school Social Studies students who hawk in the morning before school hours and those who hawk in the afternoon after school hours had average study habit while those who hawk on weekends/Holidays have good study habitFrom this study, three null hypotheses (H0: 1, 2 and 4) were retained while three null hypotheses (H0: 4, 5 and 6) were rejected. Arising from the findings of the study the following conclusion was made among others: junior secondary school Social Studies students who involved in street hawking on weekends/Holidays had better study habits than their counterparts who involve in street hawking every day in Social Studies in Nasarawa State; and junior secondary school students who involved in street hawking on weekends/Holidays had better academic performance in Social Studies than their counterparts who involve in street hawking every day in Nasarawa State. The study recommends among others that: street hawking by students should be restricted to weekends/holidays and parents should ensure that the students have some hours to rest and study and during the last week of holidays the students should be free from hawking to revise their notes in preparation for resumption; and students who involved in street hawking should be treated as those with special needs. During teaching and learning, teachers should give them special attention by: encouraging them to participate; help them develop positive academic self-concept and self-esteem; and make the classroom conducive for learning.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

COVER PAGE………………………………………………………………………..…i

TITLE PAGE......................................................................................................................................................... ii

DECLARATION............................................................................................................ iii

CERTIFICATION.......................................................................................................... iv

DEDICATION................................................................................................................. v

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS............................................................................................ vi

ABSTRACT.................................................................................................................. viii

TABLE OF CONTENTS................................................................................................. x

LIST OF TABLES........................................................................................................ xiii

LIST OF APPENDICES................................................................................................ xv

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS...................................................................................... xvi

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1      Background to the Study................................................................................... 1

1.2      Statement of the Problem................................................................................... 4

1.3      Objectives of the Study...................................................................................... 5

1.4      Research Questions............................................................................................. 5

1.5     Null Hypotheses................................................................................................. 6

1.6      Significance of the Study................................................................................... 7

1.7     Scope of the Study.............................................................................................. 8

CHAPTER TWO : REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

 2.1      Introduction........................................................................................................ 9

2.2     Theoretical Framework...................................................................................... 10

2.3      Concept of Social Studies................................................................................ 11

2.4     Concept of street hawking................................................................................. 14

2.5     Concept of Academic Performance................................................................... 22

2.6     Hawking time and duration............................................................................... 31

2.7      The Concept of study Habit............................................................................. 32

2.8      Influence of Study Habit on students` Academic Performance...................... 33

2.9      Review of Empirical Studies............................................................................ 34

Summary................................................................................................................................................................ 47

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1       Introduction.................................................................................................... 48

3.2      Research Design............................................................................................... 48

3.3      Population of the Study.................................................................................... 49

3.4      Sample and Sampling Procedure...................................................................... 49

3 .5     Research Instrument......................................................................................... 50

3.6      Procedure for Data Collection.......................................................................... 52

3.7      Procedure for Data Analysis............................................................................. 53

CHAPTER FOUR:DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS

4.1       Introduction.................................................................................................... 54

4.2      Analysis of Bio data and Answering of Research Questions........................... 54

4.3      Summary of Major Findings............................................................................. 73

4.4      Discussion......................................................................................................... 74

CHAPTER FIVE :SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1      Introduction..................................................................................................... 80

5.2      Summary........................................................................................................... 80

5.3      Conclusion........................................................................................................ 84

5.4      Recommendations............................................................................................ 85

5.5     Contribution to Knowledge............................................................................... 86

5.6     Suggestion for Further Study............................................................................ 87

REFERENCES............................................................................................................... 88

APPENDICES.................................................................................................................................................... 93

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1         Background to the Study

Child-Street hawking is a common phenomenon in Nigeria today. This is more prevalent in the urban areas. Hawking is a form of trade in which the seller (hawker) carry wares (commodities or goods) from one place to another in search of prospective buyers. Child-Street hawking refers to the selling of goods carry out by a person below the age of eighteen (child-street hawker).Among child-street hawkers are school going children (in-school child-hawkers) who out of necessity combine schooling with economic activities despite its consequences.

The phenomenon of child street hawking attracted concern from government, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO), teachers and school administrators. Studies show that children combine schooling and hawking to contribute to family survival, purchase learning materials and pay school fees (Johnson, & Ihesie, 2015). Literature suggest that parent allow their children in to hawking due to the prevailing harsh economic situation in Nigeria (Akpan, & Oluwabamide, 2010; Shailong, Onuk, & Beshi, 2011; Ayodele, & Olubayo-Fatiregun, 2014; and Clark &Yesufu, 2014; idris, Yahaya, Sambo, Muazu, & Isa, 2014). Empirical study shows a significant relationship between parents‟ occupational level and street hawking among children (Dada, 2013). Given this situation, it is unlikely that child-street hawking could be put to end any sooner.

In recent times, in-school child-street hawking has been an area of wide research (Iorvaa, 2007; Ashimolowo, Aromolaran & Inegbedion, 2010; Faruta, &Yambuk, 2013; Bosah, Offem, & Obumneke-Okeke, 2015 and Johnson, & Ihesie, 2015) due to the concern about their academic performance. Academic performance is a key aspect of educational system. It is a yardstick through which students‟ progress, teacher`s effectiveness and over all educational standard is determine. It could be defined as the ability of the students in school work which meet or exceeds the expected grades. Generally, child-street hawking has been assumed to be one of the factors influencing academic performance of students in school.

Researchers such as: Akpan, and Oluwabamide, (2010); Ashimolowo, et al (2010); Ubajaka, Duru, Nnebue, Okwaraoha, andIfeadike, (2010);Ekpenyong, andSibiri, (2011); and Johnson, and Ihesie, (2015) call for legislation against child-street hawking in Nigeria. This suggests that when child-street hawkers are barred from hawking it enable them the time to concentrate on school work. Thought it is desirable to discourage any activity that will interfere with schooling of the children, however, it is not feasible when such activity is the means of livelihood in the absent of other alternatives (Omokhodion, Omokhodion & Odusote, 2006; Anumaka, 2010). Insisting on exclusive schooling for children from low income or unemployed parents will likely: hinders enrolment; leads to withdrawal and drop out of school due cost of schooling and need for survival. Given the above situation it is better to allow school going children to engage in income generating activity while they continue schooling than not to be in school at all (Okpukpara, Chine, Uguru, & Nnaemeka, 2006). Moreover, there are in-school child-street hawkers that perform betterin academic work. Recent study reveals that while 35.7 of the students had worse grade, 31.2 had better grades and 33.1 had no change in their grades since they began hawking in the street (Johnson, & Ihesie, 2015).This implies that despite the challenges that associated with combining school and work, there are students who perform better. This situation is not unrelated to factors that minimized the effects of combining schooling and hawking. Effect of hawking on in-school children can be reduced when hawking time is minimized (Omokhodion et al., 2006). It is not unlikely that academic performance of child-street hawkers would be better when parent regulate hawking time and monitor school work. Hawking time is the period in which students carry out hawking. This could vary based on schedules of school work and/or convenience. Studies suggest the in-school students` hawking time could be: before school hours; after school hours; before and after school; and weekend/holydays (Education Research Network for West and Central Africa (ERNWACA), 2010; Ubah, & Bulus, 2014). Hawking time could determine students: attendance in school; participation in extracurricular activities; amount of time for study at home and rest. These are factors that are likely to influence academic performance of students.

Study habit is also an important factor influencing academic performance of students. Literatures suggest study habit and students‟ academic performance has been area of concern in education. Study habit has been defined as “external activities which serve to activate and facilitate the internal process of learning (Tunde, Oke, &Alam, 2010). It could be said to be the method students adopt to learn. A study habit is associated with time management, homework and assignment, reading and note-taking, concentration; preparation for examination and teacher consultation. Empirical studies reveal that there is a relationship between a students` academic performance and their study habits (Ola, & Morakinyo, 2009; Bashir, & Mattoo, 2012; Cerna, & Pavliushchenko, 2015). Studies on students effect of study habits on academic performance that are available are in relation to chemistry (Tunde, et al., 2010; Ogunkola, & Garner-O‟Neale, 2015), information and communication technology (ICT) (Mbah, 2010), English Mathematics and Sciences (Oluwatimilehin, & Owoyele, 2012) parents occupation (Aditya, & Ghosh, 2014) and type of school and type of family (Chand, 2013). It appears that Study on study habits and academic performance in Social Studies is non-existent. There is therefore, the need to carry out this study to fill in the gap in literature.

Studies abound on Junior Secondary School (JSS) students` academic performance in Social Studies. These studies focus mainly on identifying improved teaching method that will enhance academic performance of students in Social Studies (Edinyang, & Ubi, 2012). There is therefore, the need to explore the contributions of study habits in relation to hawking time to see whether it could possibly serve as an intervention to students who engage in street hawking. Thus, this research aims at making comparative analysis of effect hawking time and study habits on the academic performance of students in social studies with a view to determine which of the hawking time is associated with good study habit and will contribute towards improved performance of street hawkers in Social Studies.

 

1.2         Statement of the Problem

In-school child-street hawking attracted concern from government, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO), teachers and school administrators and researchers call for legislation against child-street hawking in Nigeria. It is supposed that the ban would enable school going children concentrate on school work for improve academic performance. However, the prevalent of child-street hawking appears to on the increase as each day pass by. Thought it is desirable to discourage any activity that will interfere with schooling of the children, however, it seems not feasible when such activity is the means of livelihood in the absent of other alternatives. The cost of schooling and need for the children to contribute to family survival is hindering school enrolment, withdrawal and drop out of school of students from poor background. Given the above situation it is better to allow school going children to engage in income generating activity while they continue schooling than not to be in school at all. It became necessary to find ways in which the academic performance of the children will be better while they combine hawking and schooling. Thus, this research aims at comparative analysis of effect hawking time and study habits on the academic performance of students in social studies with a view to determine which of the hawking time is associated with good study habit and will contribute towards improved performance of street hawkers in Social Studies.

 

1.3         Objectives of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to make a comparative analysis of Junior Secondary School students` study habits and hawking time on academic performance in Social Studies in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. The specific objectives are to:

  1. Find out the study habit of males and females Junior Secondary School Social Studies students in Nasarawa State.
  1. Find out the study habits of Junior Secondary School Social Studies students based on different age groups in Nasarawa State.
  1. Find out the study habits of Junior Secondary School Social Studies students based on different hawking time in Nasarawa State.
  1. Determine the academic performance of Junior Secondary School students in Social Studies based on gender in Nasarawa State.
  1. Determine academic performance of Junior Secondary School students in Social Studies based on different age groups in Nasarawa State.
  1. Determine academic performance of Junior Secondary School students in Social Studies based on different hawking time in Nasarawa State.

 

1.4         Research Questions

The following research questions guides the present study:

  1. What is the study habit of male and female Junior Secondary School Social Studies students in Nasarawa State?
  1. What is the study habits of Junior Secondary School Social Studies students based on different age groups in Nasarawa State?
  1. What is the study habits of Junior Secondary School Social Studies students based on different hawking time in Nasarawa State?
  1. What is the academic performance of Junior Secondary School students in Social Studies based on gender in Nasarawa State?
  1. What is the academic performance of Junior Secondary School students in Social Studies based on age in Nasarawa State?
  1. What is the academic performance of Junior Secondary School students in Social Studies based on hawking time in Nasarawa State?

 

1.5         NULL Hypotheses

The following hypotheses were raised and testing at a significance level of p≤0.05:

  1. There is no significant difference between the mean study habit scores of male and female Junior Secondary School students in Social Studies in Nasarawa State.
  1. There is no significant difference between the mean study habits scores of Junior Secondary School students in Social Studies based on different age groups in Nasarawa State.
  1. There is no significant difference between the mean study habits scores of Junior Secondary School students in Social Studies based on different hawking time in Nasarawa State.
  1. There is no significant difference between the academic performances of Junior Secondary School students in Social Studies based on their gender in Nasarawa State.
  1. There is no significant difference between the academic performances of Junior Secondary School students in Social Studies based on different age in Nasarawa State.
  1. There is no significant difference between the academic performances of Junior Secondary School students in Social Studies based on different hawking time in Nasarawa State.

 

1.6         Significance of the Study

The study sought to find out the influence of hawking time and study habit on academic performance of students. The findings of this study therefore, are expected to contribute to the understanding of situation of in-school child-street hawkers and ways of handling it to ensure improvement in their academic performance while combining schooling and hawking. It is hope that, this study will benefit school administrator, teachers, Parent Teachers Association (PTA), parents/guardians and researchers.

  

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