EXTENT USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL IN TEACHING AND LEARNING OF INTEGRATED SCIENCE AND COMPUTER SCIENCE IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL , (A CASE STUDY OF ENUGU NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA)
This study was on “Extent use of instructional materials in teaching and learning of integrated science and computer science in junior secondary school, A case study of Enugu North L. G. A in Enugu State. Four research questions were answered and the population of this study is fourteen (14) schools in Enugu North L. G.A and nine (9) school were selected.
Data were presented in table and were analyzed using the mean. The sampling technique used for this study is random sampling and total sample size is fourteen (14). It was found out by the researchers that the significance of this study serves several parties and this includes: the teachers, the society, the students, the curriculum planners etc.
It was concluded among others that there are no adequate instructional materials in teaching and learning of integrated science and computer science. The researchers recommended among others, that local government and state government should encourage teachers and provide sufficient instructional materials for junior secondary school in Enugu North.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page i
Approval Page ii
Table of content vi
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the study 1
Statement of the study 8
Purpose of the study 8
Significance of the study 9
Scope of the study 10
Research questions 11
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
Concept of instructional material 14
Principles guiding the instructional material 21
Review of modern teaching and learning aids 26
Extent use of instructional material in teaching and learning 32
The problems of instructional materials in teaching and
The benefits of the instructional material in teaching and
Summary of Literature review 39
Research Design 41
Area of the study 41
Population of the study 42
Sample and sampling techniques 42
Instrumentation for data collection 43
Validation of instrument 43
Reliability of instrument 44
Method of data collection 44
Method of data analysis 44
Decision rule 45
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Restatement of the problem 57
Summary procedure used 58
Principal findings 59
Suggestion for further study 62
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Instructional materials are variety of materials in various formats which influence student’s learning and instructors teaching which have evolved in recent years to include computer and VCR play /recorder technology, text books, pictures, transparencies, films, computer software, CDROMS, and electronic resources.
Varrella (2001) stated that several available instructional materials will serve their purposes if effectively accessed and effectively used. Instructional materials enhance effective and appropriate developmental experience quality of instruction, instructional methods and techniques.
There has been rapid expansion of Nigerian secondary education system in a bid to equip a good number of people with basic knowledge and skills, which will facilitate their interactions with members of the wider society. Awoyimi in Ugama (2000) attributes this rapid expansion to a number of factors which include. Politics, expansion of primary/secondary schools, government report on the need to increase the number of secondary schools, revision of the curriculum and the provision of science & technical education.
Before Nigerian independence, in 1960 and ten years after, there was what Government and the voluntary agencies could regard as joint management of secondary schools. After the civil war, however, the East Central State Government in 1970 passed the public education edict, which took over the control of secondary schools, in the state. Other states in the federation quickly followed suits. This culminated in what could be described as the dawn in rapid expansion in secondary education as many communities and wealthy individuals established secondary schools, which they handled over to various instructors, governments to manage.
However, education is a valuable tool for human development and improvement is seen by Durkheinn in Ugama (2000). It is a means of organizing the individual self and the social self, into a discipline, stable and meaningful being. Bebell etal (2004) states that education is the sum total of culture that a society deliberately gives its younger generation in order to qualify them and raise the level of improvement it has attained.
Educationists in the country have not relented in their effort to make sure that educational system and standards are maintained or reformed. This is done through the ministry of education or other government bodies. The introduction of 6 – 3- 3 – 4 system of education in Nigeria which was amended by 9 – 3 - 4 system as also stipulated in the National Policy on education (2004). These policies were aimed at enhancing qualitative education to the citizenry.
Consequently, education helps in the transmission of values, norms, and knowledge. From generation to generation. It takes individuals to be rational thinkers and also enhances their ability to critically evaluate issues. Through education, those in darkness always see the light of the day.
Because of the immense important of education, there is need for proper monitoring/supervision of educational activities in order to achieve the proper goals of education. The extent explained, is concerned with helping, directing, advising and guiding the subordinate in order to maximize his productivity. However, according to Nwaogu in Ugama (2000) he sees supervision as the process of bringing about improvement in instruction by working with the instructional materials to enable the teacher and the students to improve.
He maintained that it is a process of stimulating growth and means of helping teachers to help themselves. Viles in Ugama (2000) on his own part define instructional materials as the release of human potentials that make available a more competent teacher to conduct the human interaction that education. For effective education to be ensured, there could be taken to mean all efforts of designated school officials direct towards providing good leadership to teachers and other educational workers or educationalist in the improvement of instructural materials. Instructural materials involves stimulation of professional growth development of students and teachers, the selection and revision of educational objectives the instructional materials and methods of teaching and learning. However in recent times, as a result of some economic set backs and non-commitment by some teachers use of lecture method are mostly vogue which goes to negate the expected result.
Need for the use of instructional materials in the teaching and learning process
Instructional materials are the necessary materials that will aid and facilitate learning. These materials include charts, models, specimens, graphics, chemicals, monitor, keyboard, mouse, central processing unit. These can motivate students and serve as effective ways to explain and illustrate subject content. The instructional materials are needed in schools in order to improve teachers effectiveness ensure that teachers are performing their duties as expected. It is also targeted at the improvement of incompetent teachers and provision of guide for staff development. It aid in the determination of effectiveness of the teachers classroom management and determination of special abilities possessed by teachers.
Instructional materials are selected based on the principles of provision of accurate, well-written materials that will enrich and support the adopted curriculum, taking into consideration varied interests, abilities and maturity levels of the students served, provision of materials that will stimulate growth in factual and ethical standards. Provide a background of information that will enable students to make intelligent judgments in their daily lives.
In junior secondary schools, one observed uprightly abandonment of classroom by teachers for the market places or other business. This has given rise to the emergence of teacher-turned business people who hawk wares ranging from food items through shoes and bags of various designs during office hours. And as a result the time left for teaching will be reduced and there will be no enough time for the use of teaching aids in teaching.
Furthermore, apathy on the side of school authority and teachers had even gone to create a situation where even available instructional materials are not used in demonstration during teaching and learning in many schools today. For instance, in teaching of computer, learners are allowed to see the hard and soft wares without using them. In some cases, such instructional materials are not even displayed to the learners.
At school administrative level, the principal charged with the internal supervision of teachers leave much to be desired in terms of their responsibilities. Some of them lack the necessary human relation for effective leadership of subordinates. Such school leads often jettison the guidelines for materials issued by the relevant authorities in preference for methods guided by their personal interest than laid down specifications.
Government that is at the apex of co-ordination especially the relevant authorities does not help matters. The integrated science and computer science materials are sporadically carried out and when it is done. Principals and teachers as well make up deficiencies in their school by way of borrowing science apparatus to be returned to their original owners after supervisors has come and gone.
Instructional materials are indispensable tools in teaching and learning of integrated science and computer science. According to one Chinese proverb which says “what I hear I forget, what I see I remember, what I do, I know”.
Therefore, as a result of the on going, there is need to look at the extent use of instructional material in teaching and learning of integrated science and computer science in Enugu North.
Statement of the Problem
The urge to embark on this research work was stimulated by the short comings in terms of academic standards in most of our educational institution especially in junior secondary schools.
The students would not have the opportunity to manipulate the requires equipments necessary for the programme, thereby making them not to be conversant with the materials. Lack of instructional materials leads to poor performance in examination and inability of the student to handle any instructional materials at his or her disposal after secondary school.
The study therefore wish to address the extent use of instructional materials in teaching and learning of integrated science and computer science in Junior secondary school in Enugu North. Taking cognizance of the associated problems of teaching and learning.
Purpose of the Study
This study seeks to evaluate the extent use of instructional materials in teaching and learning of integrated science and computer science in junior secondary school in Enugu North. The researcher’s work is designed to achieve some specific objectives as follows to:-
1. Ascertain the adequate instructional materials in teaching and learning of integrated science and computer science in junior secondary schools in Enugu North.
2. To find out the importance of instructional materials in teaching and learning of integrated science and computer science in junior secondary school.
3. To ascertain the extent use of instructional materials used in teaching and learning in junior secondary school.
4. To find out the problems militating against the extent use of instructional material in teaching and learning of integrated science and computer science in junior secondary school in Enugu North.
5. To ascertain the problems confronting junior secondary school teachers in the use of instructural materials in teaching and learning.
Significance of the Study
This research project should be of importance to several parties and this includes the teachers, the society, the students, the curriculum planners, future researchers on the subject matter.
The Teachers: It improve the professional growth and development of teachers.
The Society: Basic scientific education is established.
The Students: It will increase the interest of learners in the learning process.
The Curriculum Planners: It enables the curriculum planners to itemize the teaching period into suitable unit and be able to access a period during which a topic should be stop.
The Future Researchers: Consequently, this study will be a bench mark for future researchers on the subject matter, as it will be a guide for future enquiry.
The Scope of the Study
Like every research projects, this project has its scope and limits within which a verifiable, acceptable, efficient, effective and reliable solution to be problem being investigated can be founded and the defined population of study.
The scope of this study is delimited to teaching and learning of integrated science and Computer science in Junior Secondary School in Enugu North of Enugu State.
The under listed are relevant research questions, which will help the researcher to actually evaluate the extent use of instructional material in teaching and learning of integrated science and computer science in junior secondary school in Enugu North.
They are as follows
1. Are there adequate instructional materials in teaching and learning of integrated science and computer science in junior secondary schools in Enugu North?
2. What is the importance of instructional materials in teaching and learning of integrated science and computer science in junior secondary school pupils?
3. To what extent does the use of instructional materials encourage active participation of pupils during the teaching and learning of integrated science and computer science?
4. What are the problems militating against extent of use of instructional material in teaching and learning of integrated science and computer science in junior secondary school in Enugu North?