PERCEPTION OF SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS ON HIV/AIDS, RELATED STIGMA AND ITS EFFECTS ON PEOPLE LIVING WITH AIDS (A CASE STUDY OF ENUGU NORTH L.G.A, ENUGU STATE)
The study explored the perception of senior secondary school students on HIV/AIDS related stigma and its effect on patients living with AIDS in Enugu North Local Government Area of Enugu State.
A survey research design was used for the study, with the total population consisted of 10918 students in all the secondary school in Enugu North Local Government Area (post primary education board Enugu zone).
A simple random sampling with flips of paper was used to select four secondary schools out of ten and a total number of 120 students were sampled, which means that 30 teachers were sampled from each school.
The instruments used for data collection are structured questionnaire with two parts, the first part contained the personal data, while the second part contained 4 items which specifically addressed the research questions with an option of yes or no.
The data obtained were analyzed using frequency counts and percentages. The findings revealed that HIV/AIDS related stigma are discrimination against people living with Aids (PLWAS), rejection and divorce of an infected person. While the factors influencing stigma are that people are scared of contracting HIV. HIV is a life threatening disease and the symptoms are concealed.
The forms and effects of stigma on people living with AIDS are rejection from families and friends, psychological trauma as well as withdrawal from social activities. Due to shame, the individual who could not bear the shame has to commit suicide.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION
Background of the study 1
Statement of the problem 5
Purpose of the study 6
Significance of the study 6
Scope of the study 8
Research question 8
CHAPTER TWO – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Concepts of HIV/AIDS related stigma 9
What is HIV/AIDS related stigma 9
Intervention/way forward 14
Factors contributing to HIV/AIDS stigma 20
Forms of HIV/AIDS stigma and discrimination 21
Effects of stigma and discrimination on PLWAS 22
Summary of literature review 16
CHAPTER THREE – RESEARCH METHOD
Research design 24
Area of study 25
Population of the study 25
Sample and sampling procedure 26
Instrument for data collection 27
Method of data collection 28
Method of data analysis 28
CHAPTER FOUR – DATE ANALYSIS AND
PRESENTATION OF RESULTS 29
Summary of the findings 37
CHAPTER FIVE – DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
Discussion of findings 39
Limitation of the study 44
Summary of the study 45
Further research area 47
BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Human Immune Deficiency Virus (HIV) a retrovirus that attacks the immune system rendering it powerless against other infections. AIDS Syndromes is a condition that result from the failure of the Immune System to combact infections. (Enugu State Action Committee on AIDS; in 2006). In the past two decades, many people in Nigeria were of the opinion that HIV was an imported diseases while Americans too felt it was imported from Africa, however, AIDS is no more of an African disease than it is an American one (GARRISON 1990). AIDS epidermic became officially known on 5th June 1981, it originated from Sooty Mongabey in Bissau Gabon and Cameroun. The first recognized case of aids occurred in the USA in the early 1980’s, when a number of gay men in New York and California suddenly began to develop rare opportunistic infections and concerns that seemed stubbornly resistant to any treatment, at that time, AIDS did not yet have a name, but it quickly become obvious that all men were suffering from a common syndromes. In Nigeria, the first evidence of AIDS was reported to the health official in 1986, in a 13 years old girl (FAGBOHUN 1998). Prior to this time, people might have been infected with AIDS/HIV but if they had not reported the case or submit themselves for HIV test there would be no record of such cases. Again, most Nigerians have poor attitudes to periodic medical check up. People go to the hospital only when they are very sick. In such case, when full blown AIDS might have manifested itself. According to Ekeniyi (1998), AIDS is an epidemic disease, a modern day pestilence that spreads its alarming rate, meanwhile, subsequent cases showed that the diseases thrives in the human body fluids examples of which are semen, blood and vaginal secretions.
AIDS is a disease that operates by suppressing the immunity in the system in such a way that the body would not be able to protect itself against any infection. By the publication of Newsletter (1999) the disease is becoming dreadful. It was estimated that their were cases of people/patients living with HIV/AIDS of about 22,393,000 by 1998 and this could have given room for its wide spread (OGUNYEMI AND OKUNOLA 1997). Meanwhile, the then minister of health Olokoye Ransome Kuti echoed the federal government concerning over the rapidly increasing number of HIV carrier in Nigeria. (RANSOME KUTI 1990) He estimated the number of HIV infected Nigerians to be about 500,000. Today, AIDS has affected almost all the communities in Nigeria and more people are being effected. In Enugu State, the prevalence is undulating making them the fourth in the country and the highest in the South Eastern Nigerian (ENSACA 2005).
Enugu State Action Committee on AIDS, estimated the number of HIV carriers at Enugu ranging from 5.2% in 2001, 4.9%. In 2003 and 6.5% in 2005 and they attributed it to the factors like poverty, ignorance, early sex, debut stigma and discrimination, multiple sex network, wives sharing and inheritance.
From the onset, the history of the epidemic disease is one of fear, stigma repression and social conflicts. HIV/AIDS being an epidemic disease inherited stigma and concomitant discrimination.
According to action committee on Aids formed in Enugu State on (2006), they refers stigma to disgrace and feelings of shame, therefore HIV relation stigma refers to all unfavourable attitudes, beliefs and policies directed towards people perceived to be living with HIV/AIDS by their loved ones, chose associates, social groups and communities. The pattern of prejudice or discrimination ranges from devaluing, discounting and discrediting against people living with AIDS. Across the world, the global epidemic of HIV/AIDS is associated with discrimination and rejection as individual affected by HIV has been rejected by friends, families and communities. Some have been sacked from their work places; others ejected by their landlords, spouses have divorced all because of fear of reckoning with HIV.
According to Onyia (2007) HIV/AIDS related stigma is an epidemic of stigma. This figure of speech has turned out to be more appropriate than one would wish for in many ways, the stigma of HIV/AIDS has an even wider reach and a greater effect than the virus itself.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
HIV has become a major health problem in global world including Nigeria and Enugu State. AIDS is acquired from one infected person to another through various means but mainly through sexual intercourse with an infected person, and this person cannot be identified by physical appearance unless subjected to HIV screening test and this predisposes many lives at the risks of contracting HIV or discrimination of HIV virus through certain behaviours that can be prevented or corrected through evaluation. Secondly, HIV is related to stigma which further fuels the spread or death of patients living with HIV/AIDS. What are the perceptions of senior secondary school Students on HIV/AIDS related stigma and what are the effects on AIDS patient. These are the questions which this research work aims at finding an answer to.
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The general purpose of the study is to find out the perceptions of secondary school students on HIV/AIDS related stigma and its effects on patient living with HIV/AIDS. Specifically the purpose of the research were;
1. To determine why HIV/AIDS is related stigma.
2. To identify factors contributing to HIV/AIDS stigma and discrimination.
3. To identify the forms of HIV/AIDS stigma.
4. To determine the effects of stigma on patients living with HIV/AIDS virus.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study will provide adequate information on the causes, ways of transmission of HIV, the effects of stigma on patients living with HIV/AIDS and how this can be guarded against to the youths. Society as a whole and patients living with HIV/AIDS.
Youths are the younger adults, they are the groups that are in a period of sexual drive exploration fueled by misleading information from peers, and electronic media. This made them vulnerable to HIV and other Sexual Transmitted Infections (STI). This study will provide the youth with adequate information on HIV transmission, thereby building in them, the capacity to say no to behaviour that will lead to contracting or further spreading of AIDS.
Societies are made up of men and women of various families and disciplines which are at danger to contracting this deadly disease through various means. They needed information on the modes of transmission of HIV. Through this study, the ignorant ones will take a decision on behavioural changes that can lead to HIV spread and equally provoke empathy and love towards their loved one that are infected, patient living with HIV/AIDS are groups already infected. This study will encourage them to take a bold steps to positive living and stop isolating themselves and with the advent of anti-retroviral drugs (ARU) they can lives as many years as they want.
SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study was restricted to the perceptions of secondary school students on HIV/AIDS related stigma and its effects on AIDS patients.
1. What are the HIV/AIDS related stigma?
2. What are the factors contributing to HIS/AIDS related stigma and discrimination?
3. What are the forms of HIV/AIDS related stigma?
4. What are the effects of HIV/AIDS stigma on patients living with HIV/AIDS?