THE EFFECT OF SCIENCE PRACTICALS ON EFFECTIVE TEACHING AND LEARNING OF JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL SCIENCES IN ENUGU NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, ENUGU STATE.
Thisproject work was carried out to determine the effect of science practicals on effective teaching and learning of junior secondary school sciences in Enugu North Local Government Area, Enugu State.
The long held notion is that practiclas offer students a more realistic experience in sciences but lunette (2008), reported that some educators have begun to question seriously the effectiveness and the role of laboratory work. They opined that practical method of teaching is not self- evident as it once seemed. The result obtained from the sample schools, showed that integrated and computer science practicals have positive effect on academic performance of students. In all cases that was tested, practical methods of teaching integrated and computer were found to be superior to traditional theoretical methods .
Chapter one and two are the background of the study and the review of related literature respectively. In chapter three, the research methodology and overall design of the study was presented. Chapter four, dealt with data presentation and analysis. The educational implication of the study, recommendation and summary were contained in chapter five.
References and appendices were inclusive.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of contents
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study - - - - - - - - 1
1.2 Statement of the problem - - - - - - - 4
1.3 Purpose of the study - - - - - - - - 5
1.4 Significance of the study - - - - - - - 6
1.5 Scope of the study - - - - - - - - 7
1.6 Research questions - - - - - - - - 7
CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Science practiclas and effective teaching and learning - - 8
2.2 Factors Affecting Effective Teaching And Learning Of Sciences - - 12
2.3 Effect Of Environment On Science Students - - - - 17
2.4 Summary Of Review Of Related Literature - - - - 18
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH PROCEDURE AND METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research Design - - - - - - - - 20
3.2 Area Of Study - - - - - - - - - 21
3.3 Population Of The Study - - - - - - - 21
3.4 Sample And Sampling Techniques - - - - - - 21
3.5 Instrument For Data Collection - - - - - - 22
3.6 Validation Of Instrument - - - - - - - 22
3.7 Method Of Data Analysis - - - - - - - - 22
3.8 Decision Rule - - - - - - - - - 23
CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Research Question 1 For Teachers - - - - - 24
4.2 Research Question Ii - - - - - - - - 26
4.3 Research Question Iii For Students- - - - - 28
CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSES, CONCLUDES AND STATES THE IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDING OF THE STUDY. IT GOES FURTHER TO MAKE RECOMMENDATIONS AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDIES.
3.1 Discussion Of Findings - - - - - - - 31
5.2 Summary Of Findings - - - - - - - - 33
5.3 Implication Of Findings - - - - - - - - 35
5.4 Conclusion - - - - - - - - - 38
5.5 Recommendation Of Findings -- - - - - 40
5.6 Suggestions For Further Study---- - - - - 42
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Science is a means of solving human problems (Abimbola 2010). He further emphasized that the progress of science is not marked only by accumulation of facts but by the emergence of scientific methods, translated in practical terms, into technology. (Onyeso et al 2009) posits that the ultimate way of teaching and learning sciences is by evidence based, practical methods. Sciences in this regards is with particular reference to integrated and computer sciences.
Computer education is a field of study that consists of the teaching and learning of computer. Okolo (2007) had defined computer as an electronic gadget or device that accepts to produce the desired output or information with the aid of a set of instructions. On the other hand, Perez (2002) described integrated science as an encomposing all the fundamental sciences, package into relevant sets of instruction for building foundations of sciences in Junior Secondary School Students.
Practicals can be described as the aspect of education which is concerned with the incorporation of the relevant technical skill in a particular field of study. It is the method of education, training or retraining which is directed towards developing the learner to become productive in that area of study as well as equipping the students with in-dept knowledge of that area of study. It is therefore the bedrock in which a country’s socio economic, technological and cultural advancement must be built.
We value science (as a product, as an enquiry process and as a social institution) because of its success in explaining phenomena in elegant and parsimonious ways, which are intellectually satisfying and which often facilitate the purposeful manipulation of objects materials and events. The aims of science practicals might then be summarized (Encyclopadia ikipodia 2009) as:
i. To help students to gain an understanding of as much of the established body of scientific knowledge as an appropriate to their needs, interests and capacities.
ii. To develop student’s understanding of the methods by which this knowledge has been gained and our grounds for confidence in it (knowledge about science).
iii. To improving student’s scientific knowledge as theories are integrated into practice. The idea is that students are taught out to carry their on scientific enquiries and so acquire scientific knowledge for themselves. Clearly practical work has a central role in any such vision of science education.
The primary objectives of integrated science are as follows:
i. It provides students with the ability to participate in activities designed to arrest their interest and lay solid foundation for their study of science of higher levels of education.
ii. To stimulate creativity and reflexive thinking
iii. To creative on attitude to life.
iv. To continue the process of concepts building for acquiring a science.
During the ministerial council meeting of the National Council on Education in 1987, the federal government decided to introduce Computer Education into the nations secondary schools system with the following objectives:
i. Bring about a computer literate society in Nigeria.
ii. Enables the present children to appreciate and use the computer in various aspects of life.
iii. Enable the present children meet up with the requirement of employment as every office is getting computerized.
In its previous edition WAEC syllabus 2000 stated that great importance should be attached to experimental work and use of control experimental. It was recommended that, whenever possible, through out the whole courses. Candidates should be taught with practical application of what is being studied.
From the foregoing, we can understand that science practical lesson is most essential for effective teaching and learning of integrated and computer science in junior secondary school.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Science as a core subject in the junior secondary school is designed to equip students with the knowledge of relevant concepts and scientific skills. The main center for the study of sciences in junior secondary schools is science laboratory. Anionu (2005) observed that most science laboratories exist in names only. They are generally used as ordinary classroom. The reason is due to lack of facilities for science laboratory in junior secondary school or in school in general. Similarly Offiah (2003) noted that many students perform poorly in practical related subject not only because of lack of laboratory equipment and materials but also poor usage of laboratory equipment and materials but also poor usage of laboratory by the science teachers.
This study therefore intent to examine the effect of science practicals in effective teaching and learning of junior secondary school sciences in Enugu North Local Government Area of Enugu State.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
Based on the background and problems of this study, the main purpose underlying the project is to investigate the effects of sciences practicals on the effective teaching and learning of junior secondary school sciences in Enugu North Local Government Area. The study specifically seeks to determine;
i. The effects of sciences practicals on students achievement in integrated and computer science examination.
ii. The presence or the availability of science laboratories basically the integrated and computer sciences laboratories in the junior secondary school.
iii. The interest of students in participating in the science practicals at their junior secondary level.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The practical activities in sciences are designed to help students acquired basic scientific skills and improve their performance and achievement as well.
The study tends to uncover the benefits of practicals to the; students, parents, teachers, government and the entire society.
If the result of this research is properly utilized: it will,
i. Promote the ideas that science is both a product and progress in students by arousing their interest in practical work;
ii. Motivate the parents to provide basic requirement of practical lessons for their children;
iii. Convince the science teachers that practical lesson are mostly essential tools for effective teaching and learning of integrated and computer sciences;
iv. Make the government, through the ministry of education to realized the need for provision of science equipment to schools and posting of qualified science teachers to secondary schools, it is not the issue of jack of all trade master of non. Teaching has attained professionalism and specialization;
v. Help the Nigeria society in their request for improved technology and
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study is targeted on the junior secondary schools in Enugu North Local Government Area of Enugu State (A case study of integrated and computer sciences). The scope is also delimited on JSS II integrated and computer science students
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following questions was formulated to guide the study”
i. To what extent do science practicals affect students achievement in integrated and computer sciences in the junior secondary school?
ii. At the junior secondary school level, are there adequate integrated science and computer science laboratories?
iii. Does students have interest in participating in the science practicals at their junior secondary school level?