DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF MICRO-CONTROLLER BASED MULTI-PURPOSE SECURITY SYSTEM WITH DIRECTIONS
This project outlines the design and construction of micro-controller based multi-purpose security system with directions which can be used in the military to provide utmost security/safety in the cantonment. This electronic system is designed with four sensors at the input to monitor enemies/ intruders through the sides and rare view and to monitor fire-outbreak within the cantonment respectively. A password operated door is incorporated at the main entrance to monitor unauthorized access into the ammoury of the cantonment. The outputs of these sensors are fed into a signal conditioning circuit that serve as the control logic whose outputs are fed into the port 0 of the 8051 microcontroller that contains a real-time software written in assembly language to simulate the entire hardware. A seven-segment display unit and a buzzer driven by transistors are interfaced at the output port of the 8051 to display the location of the intruder in figure and to alert the security by sounding an alarm respectively. This system offers everything necessary to put an end to security inconveniences as it incorporates an intelligent device, microcontroller.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 General description of the project
1.2 Objectives of the project
1.3 Significances of the project
1.4 Scope of the project
1.5 Project report organization
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Historical background of the project
2.2 Theories relevant to the design
2.2.1 8051 family of microcontrollers
2.2.6 electromagnetic relays
2.2.7 Darlington pair transistors
3.3 Other System components
3.3.4 Junction diodes
3.3.5 IC linear voltage regulators (78 XX)
CHAPTER THREE: SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN
3.1 Description of the system building blocks
3.2 System design block diagram, system design specifications and power supply unit
3.2.1 System design block diagram
3.2.2 System design specifications
3.2.3 Power supply unit
3.3 System Operation principles
3.4 System design calculation
3.4.1 power supply unit
3.4.2 opt coupler/control logic
3.4.3 Darlington pair/electromagnetic relay
3.4.4 buzzer and seven-segment display interface
CHAPTER FOUR: IMPLEMENTATION AND MODE OF CONSTRUCTION
4.2 Mode of construction
4.3 Software development and flowchart
CHAPTER FIVE: TESTING AND INTEGRATION
5.4 Bill engineering materials
5.5 Problems encountered and solutions
CHAPTER SIX: SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
1.1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT
The industrial Electronics has changed the whole field of Engineering and technology is occurring so rapidly, even in developing countries. It is so because newer technologies overcome older ones. After the industrial revolution the world directed towards the information age with the development of computers during the 1950's.
As such, mechantronics which is a principle that combines the application of mechanical and electrical means has taken over the greater part of industrial electronics which is indispensable in modern technology.
In Nigeria, security which is one of the basic lookouts in any productive firm has been on the decrease. Most industries have gone bankrupt because of their inability to meet up to the security standard required in a modern day setting. Equally, some homes and offices have lost important documents and properties due to easy access that criminals have. There is thus an urgent need for significant security measures to improve the standard of living of the people, enhance development and put to a stop the menace of insecurity. That is the reason as a student of Electrical/Electronics Engineering I decided to embark on a project named "Microcontroller Based Multipurpose Security Device with Direction”.
This electronic system consists of four sensors made up of opto couplers realized with combination of Laser beam, from Laser diode coupled into a cadmium sulfide photocell (c.d.s photocell).
This component serves as an electronic eye, the output of optocouplers conditioned by a Schmitt trigger NAND gate control Logic (74 Ls 132) TTL chip. The output of the 132 chips is sent into port 0 of 8051 microcontroller. A keypad encoder containing eight keys is interfaced to a port 1 of 8051 microcontroller. An electromagnetic relay driven by a Darlington pair transistor static switch is interfaced to the port 2 of the microcontroller. Servo motors that serve as the door prime mover is link to AC Circuit. Via the normally open contact of the electromagnetic relay. A buzzer is also interface to port 2 through a single transistor static switch.
The entire system is designed in such a manner that whenever somebody wants to gain entrance through the back door, the electronic eyes (optocoupler) installed at the locations respective sense the presence and triggers a buzzer alarm at the security department of the cantonment and seven-segment display shows the exact location of the intruder. When the fire detector sense fire-outbreak in the cantonment a pulsating alarm is triggered.
Whenever a user of the ammunition house wants to get access into it, he keys in the exact password and the gate opens and closes on its own. If an invalid password is keyed in, an alarm is triggered at the security department with the exact location of intruder displayed on the seven-segment display unit.
1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT
The objective of this project is to design and implement a microcontroller based multipurpose security device with direction capable of securing a military cantonment from fire-outbreak, intruder location and detection and to control access to a strong room in the cantonment. Another objective of this project is to ground the graduating student in electronic system design and implementation involving microcontroller. This project is also aimed at acquainting the young engineers with skills for engineering, technical and scientific writing which is very indispensable in their professional practice. Another aim of this project is to familiarize these graduating students with programming involving real-time software (Assembly Language).
1.3 THE PROJECT SIGNIFICANCE
The project construction work is used in a number of places like in a military cantonment to provide security against enemies, fire-outbreak and unauthorized access into their strong room, bank strong room doors to avoid intruders, Another vital application of this project is in office doors, and in modern buildings. Also this project is for security surveillance in combination with closed circuit television (CCTv). The project of this nature can also be used in JAMB and WAEC strong room doors.
1.4 THE PROJECT REPORT ORGANIZATION
The realization of this project is presented in chapters for clarity purpose. Chapter one contains a brief introduction to the project. Chapter two is titled as the literature review, while chapter three is the system design. Chapter four exposes the Implementation and mode of construction, chapter five is testing and integration. Chapter six is all about problems encountered, recommendation and conclusion.