THE IMPACT OF RADIO JINGLES ON VOTER PREFERENCE OF CANDIDATES IN NATIONAL ASSEMBLY POLL A STUDY OF 2011 GENERAL ELECTION IN ENUGU SENATORIAL EAST DISTRICT.
This research work is on the Impact of Radio Jingle on Voter Preference of Candidates in 2011 National Assembly Poll. The research tried to determine the level of Impact of Radio Jingle on Voter Preference of Candidates in the just concluded General Election. Enugu East Senatorial District is used as a test sample. In the investigation of the study, six hypotheses were formulated and duly tested. Also, objectives of the study were made among which are to ascertain if Radio Jingles have any Impact on the choices of voters and to determine if the results of the last general poll were reflections of choices made based on voter exposure to bill boards. In order to effectively gather data, interview through the use of questionnaire were conducted. From the administered questionnaire, data were collected and statistically analyzed by the use of tabulations and percentage which were properly interpreted in relative to the stated hypotheses and findings obtained are that Nigerians have more access to Radio Jingles in relative to other mass media. It was as well discovered that Nigerians exposure to radio jingles influenced their opinion formation towards their choice of candidates. Another findings was that issues and candidate are more important factors in voting choice then party identification.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page - - - - - - - - - i
Approval page - - - - - - - - ii
Dedication - - - - - - - - iii
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - iv
Abstract - - - - - - - - - vi
Table of contents - - - - - - - vii
List of tables - - - - - - - - ix
1.1 Background of study - - - - - - 1
1.2 Statement of Research Problem - - - - 4
1.3 Objective of the study - - - - - 5
1.4 Significance of the study - - - - - 5
1.5 Research questions - - - - - - 6
1.6 Research Hypothesis - - - - - -- 7
1.7 Theoretical framework - - - - - 9
1.8 Scope/Limitation of the study - - - - 12
1.9 Definition of terms -- - - -- - - 13
References - - - - - - - 16
LITERATURE REVIEW - - - - - - 17
2.1 Sources of literature - - - - - - 17
2.2 Review of literature - - - - - - 17
2.3 Summary of literature - - - - - 22
References - - - - - - - 23
METHODOLOGY - - - - - - - 24
3.1 Research Design - - - - - - 24
3.2 Area of Study - - - - - - - 24
3.3 Research Population - - - - - - 25
3.4 Research sample - - - - - - 25
3.5 Sampling Techniques- - - - - - 28
3.6 Instrument of Data collection - - - - 28
3.7 Method of data Analysis - - - - - 29
3.8 Expected Result - - - - - - 30
References - - - - - - - 31
PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION OF FINDINGS 32
4.1 Data presentation and Analysis - - - - 32
4.2 Analysis of Research Question/Hypothesis - - 41
4.3 Discussion of Result - - - - - - 51
References - - - - - - - 52
5.1 Summary - - - - - - - - 53
5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - 54
5.3 Recommendation - - - - - - 54
References - - - - - - - 55
Bibliography - - - - - - - 56
Questionnaire - - - - - - - 57
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Sex Distribution of voters - - - - 33
Table 2: Age Distribution of Respondents - - 33
Table 3: Marital Status - - - - - - 34
Table 4: Educational Question - - - - 35
Table 5: Occupation of Respondents - - - 36
Table 6: Did you listen to Radio Jingles of candidates during 2011 general Election - - - - - 36
Table 7: Do Nigerian have more access to radio jingles in relative to other mass media - - - 37
Table 8: Is party identification a factor in voting choice 38
Table 9: Do you think that Radio Jingles are credible 38
Table 10: Did Radio Jingles create much awareness - 39
Table 11: Did voters exposure to radio jingle influence their opinion formation - - - - - 40
Table 12: Did Nigerians get all the information they need about the Nation Assembly candidates - 40
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Radio as a medium of mass communication has gained acceptance across the different social strata in the society over the years. It has been identified as advertiser’s preferred medium of marketing of consumer goods but recent studies indicate or show that politicians and political parties use this medium during the election earring campaign 2011 election inclusive.
In the process of competition for power and control, politicians and political parties have to appeal to the elaboration for votes and mass supports. They have to persuade through the elaboration of their planned action, that is policy and programmes designed to satisfy the needs of the electorates as the party leaders and functionaries have initially perceived them. Such party policies, programmes, and positions and usually contained in a party platform or party manifesto and these, can be in form of jingles, Oyeleye (1988; p. 67).
Radio Jingles become an effective system of influencing voters on their choices of candidates in view of its availability and versatility to a large number of audience over far distance.
It is capable of reaching people in their various field of endeavour who may not have access to other media.
Radio Broadcasting necessitates grassroots mobilization in Nigeria politics which had long deals with mass emotional motivation, psycho-social and political spurring of the people towards the attainment of corporate and communal goals which is a sinequa-non to a stable democratic Nigeria, Akindele (1989; p. 1).
Jingles are an important campaign tool because people love merry making. It bone the people if politicians would only campaign in plain debates. There should always be music because it is something that lifts up the energy and invited people to support politicians, Asutilla (2010; p. 2).
Political candidate in most cases develop a central theme for their campaign jingles. Sometimes it emerges as the battle progresses. Often, it is well thought out in advance, candidates’ attempt to choose their terrain, staking out certain issues that they believe will give them advantage over their opponent. But to some extent, the campaign theme is shaped by the candidates status, Cummings (1974; p. 249).
Sometimes the identity of a political party influences the voting choices. Although issues and candidates were more important factors in voting choice than party identification, feeling about parties conditioned how people felt about candidates and issues, Richards (1986; p. 297).
In 2011 National Assembly Election Senator Chimaroke Nnamani was the candidate recognized to have spent so much with his political advert, but he still ended up loosing the fight. This was credited to people’s perception of his candidature.