MEDIA COVERAGE OF 2011 ELECTION VIOLENCE IN NIGERIa A CASE STUDY OF VANGUARD AND DAILY SUN
The research studied press coverage of 2011 election violence in Nigeria using selected national dailies Vanguard and Daily Sun as a case study. In tandem with the guidelines on studies of this nature, content Analysis method was adopted. Coding sheet was used to analyze the manifest Content of the selected dailies from January 2011 to May 2011. The content was measured for prominence, news slant, frequency and direction. Chi-square formula was used to test the hypothesis formulated and validity of research questions. From the findings, Daily Sun and Vanguard Newspaper had adequate coverage of election violence in Nigeria while geographical location had influence on the News judgement on the part of the editors. The dynamics of media ownership, religious bias and political factors shaped the editorial style of the dailies within the period under review. However, owners of media organizations and editors were implored to de-emphasize ethno-religious influence and political interests in the reportage of electoral violence.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page - - - - - - - - - i
Approval page - - - - - - - - ii
Dedication - - - - - - - - iii
Acknowledgement - - - - - - - iv
Abstract - - - - - - - - - v
Table of contents - - - - - - - vi
List of Table - - - - - - - - x
1.1 Background of study - - - - - - 1
1.2 Statement of Research Problem - - - - 4
1.3 Objective of the study - - - - - 5
1.4 Significance of the study - - - - - 6
1.5 Research questions - - - - - - 6
1.6 Research Hypothesis - - - - - - 7
1.7 Theoretical framework - - - - - 8
1.8 Definition of terms - - - - - - 10
1.9 Scope/Limitation of the study - - - - 11
References - - - - - - - 12
LITERATURE REVIEW - - - - - - 13
2.1 Sources of literature - - - - - - 13
2.2 Review of literature - - - - - - 13
2.3 Summary of literature - - - - - 29
References - - - - - - - 31
METHODOLOGY - - - - - - - 33
3.1 Research Design - - - - - - 33
3.2 Area of Study - - - - - - - 34
3.3 Research Population - - - - - - 33
3.4 Research sample - - - - - - 36
3.5 Sampling Techniques- - - - - - 38
3.6 Instrument of Data collection - - - - 38
3.7 Method of data Analysis - - - - - 39
3.8 Expected Result - - - - - - 40
References - - - - - - - 41
PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION OF FINDINGS 42
4.1 Data presentation and Analysis - - - - 42
4.2 Analysis of Research Question/Hypothesis - - 43
4.3 Discussion of Result - - - - - - 56
References - - - - - - - 60
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 61
5.1 Summary - - - - - - - - 61
5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - 63
5.3 Recommendation - - - - - - 64
Bibliography - - - - - - - 66
LIST OF TABLES
Table 4.1:Northern based newspapers will tend to give more coverage to issue relation to 2011 election violence than southern or eastern based newspapers 44
Table 4.2:Geographical location will tend to influence the amount of prominence given to April 2011 election violence by Nigerian newspapers - - - 48
Table 4.3:Ownership will tend to affect favourably the response by Nigeria newspapers to April 2011 electoral violence- - - - - 51
Table 4.4:Ethnicity will tend to influence significantly Nigeria newspapers objective in the reportage of 2011 election violence in Nigeria - - - - 54
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The 2011 general election was adjudged by international observes as free, fair and credible but was trailed by post electoral violence. The presidential election divided the country along ethnic and religious line. The 2011 post election violence began with widespread protester by supporters of main opposition candidate Muhammadu Buhari of the Congress for Progressive Change (CPC). The protest degenerated into sectarian and ethnic blood. Letting across the northern states of Adamawa, Bauchi, Borno, Niger, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Sokoto, Yobe and Zamfara. Muslim rioters targeted and killed Christians and members of ethnic groups from southern Nigeria who were perceived to have supported the ruling People Democratic Party (PDP). In the Bauchi state the rioters targeted members of National Youths Services Corps (NYSC) who served as ad-hoc election staff. Kaduna state suffered the highest death toll during the violence. The state police spoke’s man, DSP Aminu Lawan confirmed that each of the twenty three local government Area has some form of fighting going on, but it was worse in Zonkwa, and Kafachan in Zongo, Katat and Jema;a, a local government area. The Muslim rioters also attached police stations, electoral commission office and burning their churches, shops and homes. Christian communities in Kaduna retaliated by killing Muslims and burning their mosques and properties.
The US Ambassador to Nigeria, Terrence P. Mcculley has commended Nigeria 2011 electoral process, adjudging it is free, fair and most transparent in Nigeria history (Daily Sun, April 29, 2011. p. 10). Johnnie Carson, the top United State diplomat for Africa also said that Nigeria has completed its most successful election since it return to multi-party democracy in 1999 (Daily Sun, April 29, 2011, pg. 7). The America Leadership Council (NACL) a Washington DC based non-partisan and non-governmental organization, comprising leaders of major ethnic, regional and professional organization in USA congratulated Nigeria on the recent presidential election in the history of Nigeria. (Vanguard, April 25, 2011, p. 18).
This study is to measure the extent the two national dallies. Vanguard and Daily Sun covered 2011 post election violence in Nigeria. Vanguard is a private owned newspaper and was published at Lagos in the Southern part of Nigeria, while Daily Sun is also a private owned newspaper in the south-East of Nigeria. The newspapers carried out a balanced coverage of 2011 post election violence in Nigeria and their geographical location did not affect their coverage. Vanguard published a total of seventy-seven stories on election violence from 18th to 30 April 2011, while Daily Sun published ninth-one stories. The newspapers carried only one editorial which is the opinion of the newspaper. The covered few opinion stories, letters, and interviews. The newspapers gave prominence to the killing of National Youth Services Corps (NYSC) members in the Northern parts of the country and the opinion of people to review National Youth Services Corps (NYSC) programme. for instance: On Friday, May 13, page 3 with headline “Post election crises: Fasehun warns against re-occurrence Wants NYSC law to review (Daily Sun, May 13, 2011, p.3). May 29, 2011 also with headline: “NYSC Review or Scrap it now (Daily Sun, May 29, 2011, p. 9).
In a modern society the public forms its opinion largely on the basis of what the media: Newspaper, Television, radio and Magazine reported to them. Consequently, the quality of the Mass Media, the amount of time and space the devote to public affair, their editorial stands, ownership patterns and objectivity are all matters of interest (Cunnings, 1968, p. 207).
1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
This study will undertake the task of findings out the extent the newspapers went in reporting 2011 post election violence in Nigeria and whether Vanguard and Daily Sun newspaper have limitations in reporting the 2011 post election violence in Nigeria.
The salient of ethnicity, ownership and geographical location in the press communication has tended to erode the objectivity and credibility of the press as impaired empire in the coverage of national issues.
The study will also examine the influence of geographical location of newspapers on the amount and direction of coverage given to political event.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
This study is aimed at digging deep into the manner in which the Vanguard and Daily Sun newspapers reported 2011 electoral violence in Nigeria.
Also, a concerned effect would be made to gauge the activities of the two identified newspapers in their timely reports of the crises and also the efforts of the two newspapers shaped and proffered solution to the political mayhem that bedeviled the entire citizen of Nigeria.
Therefore, it is assumed that by the time the researcher conclude this study, one would be left in doubt as regard the true position of things.