Determination Of Cyanide From Cassava Tuber (havested Same Day, And Two Days Later)

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DETERMINATION OF CYANIDE FROM CASSAVA TUBER (HAVESTED SAME DAY, AND TWO DAYS LATER)

ABSTRACT

Table instrumentation analysis was used to determine the total cyanide contents of the cassava tuber harvested and allowed to stay for two days. This enzymatic method was done by weighing 10 g of the sample into a conical flask followed by treating it with water which was centrifuged for an hour to get a supernatant, subsequently it was diluted for spectrometric analysis. After dilution, the content were analyzed and was found that concentration in cassava obtained from coal camp and Udi was significantly higher than that of Nsukka, Ugwuaji, Abakpa and Ogbete respectively.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page         -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       i

Certification    -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       ii

Dedication       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       iii

Acknowledgement   -       -       -       -       -       -       -       iv

Abstract -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       v

Table of Content      -       -       -       -       -       -       -       vi

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION   -      -      -      -      -      -      -      1

CHAPTER TWO    

2.0   Literature review     -       -       -       -       -       -       5

2.1   Traditional method of processing cassava      -       5

2.2   Washing -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       6

2.3   Peeling     -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       6

2.4   Rewashing       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       7

2.5   Grating    -       -       -       -       -       -       -       -       7

2.6   Mechanized of processing cassava -       -       9

2.7   Effect cyanide on man    -       -       -       -       -       11

2.8   Detoxification of cassava        -       -       -       -       12

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0      Material and methodology      -       -       -       13

3.1      Raw material -       -       -       -       -       --     13

3.2      Method of analysis -       -       -       -       -       14

3.3      Preparation of cassava root    -       -               15

3.4      Moisture content determination     -       -       15

3.5      Starch determination     -       -       -       -       16

3.6      Cyanide content determination      -       -       17

3.7      pH Determination   -       -       -       -       --     19

 

 

CHAPTER ON FOUR

4.0      Result and Discussion    -       -       -       -       20

4.1      Disease associated with cassava    -       -       23

4.2      Goiter disease-       -       -       -       --     -       24

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0      Conclusion and Recommendation -       25

5.1      Recommendation    -       -       -       -       -       29

Appendixes      -       -       -       -       -       -       31 References -       -       -        -       -       -       33

 


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Cassava is a root plant; it originated from South America and spread widely in the Africa countries including Nigeria. It has botanical characterization of Manihots esculenta .It store food in its tuber. The tuber (root) and leave is the edible part of the cassava which is the most source of carbohydrate to man and animals, which in turn when hydrolyze in the process of metabolism to simple sugar glucose – which is the source of energy for man and animals.

It is understood today in Nigeria (West Africa) that apart form source of food to man and animals, cassava serves as the raw material in industry and production of ethanol. Though cassava has different varieties which is processed for different purposes such as cheeps, tapioca, garri, flour, etc. processing a cassava help to get out the toxic content of hydrogen cyanide which dissolve in the cassava inform of cyanogenic glucoside (linamnin and lotaustarin) which undergo hydrolysis to form hydrogen cyanide that cause acute head ache, diarrhea, dizziness, mental confusion, goiter etc. During this process of hydrolysis the cyanogenic glucoside (90% linamarin in cassava) is broken down by enzyme linamrase to produce B-glucose, acetonecynohydrine which react spontaneously to produce Acetone and hydrogen cyanide.

In cassava peeling and slicing disrupts the cell structure of the plant, with subsequent liberation of hydrogen cyanide. This hydrogen cyanide can be removed by further processing such as cokking (baking boiling or roasting) and by fermentation. In bamboo shoot as a cynogenic glucoside plant. Slicing into thin strips librates hydrogen cyanide which is more volatile

 

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