Prevalence Of Intestinal Helminthasis In Enugu Metropolis -

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PREVALENCE OF INTESTINAL HELMINTHASIS IN ENUGU METROPOLIS  -

ABSTRACT

 

The question on whether the rate of intestinal helminthes in man is increasing or decreasing had caused a lot of controversies over years especially among children in Enugu metropolis. The investigations were conducted at the section in park lane hospital Enugu.

A total of 100 stool samples collected within the age limit of 1-15 years were examined. These samples were subjected to direct smear (saline direct smear method). Out of 100 individuals examined, 52 showed helminthes ova. Within the age limit of 3-4 were 40%, the age of 5-6 showed 33.3%, within the age of 7-8 were 100%, at the age limit of 9-10 years, the rate was 90%, within the age of 11-12 were 80%, age limit of 13-14 were 60%, at the age of 15 years were 50%. 40.38% were due to ascaris, 32.69% were due to hookworm while 26.92% were due to mixed infection of hookworm and ascaris.  

  


LIST OF FIGURES

 

FIG 1:         LIFE CYCLE OF ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES

 

FIG 2:         STRUCTURE OF ASCARIS LUMRICOIDES

 

FIG 3:         STRUCTURE OF HOOKWORM (ANCYCLOSTOMA

DUODENALE) (NECATOR AMERICANUS)

 

FIG 4:         A HISTOGRAM DISTRIBUTION OF THE PREVALENCE

RATE OF ASCARIS AND HOOKWORM.


LIST OF TABLES

 

TABLE 1:            TECHNIQUES USED IN HELMITHS

IDENTIFICATION

 

TABLE 2:            ANALYSIS OF HELMINTHES RESULT

 

TABLE 3:            PREVALENCE RATE OF ASCARIS, HOOKWORM,

ASCARIS AND HOOKWORM


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

Title Page

Certification

Acknowledgement

Dedication

Abstract

List of Figures

List of Tables

Table of Contents

 

CHAPTER ONE

1.1            Background information of the study

1.2            Statement of problem

1.3            Aim and objectives of the study

1.4            Working hypothesis

1.5            Significance of the study

1.6            Limitation of the study

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1            Menace of helminthes

2.2            The life cycle of helminthes

2.3            Pathogenesis and sources of infection

2.4            Control option of parasitic helminthes

2.5            Diagnosis of helminthes infection

 

CHAPTER THREE

MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY

3.1            Materials and apparatus

3.2            Specimen collection

3.3            Parastological technique

3.4            Precautions taken when carrying out stool examination.

3.5            Distinguish features of helminthes ova

 

 

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0            Result and discussion

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.1            Conclusion

5.2            Recommendation

REFERENCES

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND INFORMATION OF THE STUDY

Worm infestation has been a problem for quite a long time. The world’s worm distribution is nearly always constant irrespective of man’s ingenuity and control attempts. It is logical to assume that worms in particular and parasite in general have been with man since dawn of history in most of the developing parts of the world, it is recognized that more than half the population is chronically infected with one or more species of these parasitic worms (Palowiska 1981). Observed that the level of worm infestation in the advanced communities is generally at low level compared with that of third world and he attributed this to improper sewage treatment and poor sanitation.

Stroll (1947), confirmed this in his paper titled this wormly world. The most common of the parasitic worms that infect the human intestines are the;

Roundworms              ascaris spp

Hookworms                ancylstoma duodenale and nelator spp

Whipworms                trichuris trichuria and

Pinworms                    enterobuuis reroncularis

 

The presence of these various types of worms in large numbers coupled with the poor hominy habit of large segments of the world population has made the control of these worms difficult and the eradication nearly impossible.

Helminthes is of Greek origin meaning worms. These helminthes are under the phyla platy helminthes (flat worms) lack a true body cavity (acelomate) and are characteristically flat in dose ventral section. All medically important species belong to the classes listed (tape worm) and trematoda (fludes) and nemathelmentes, worm – like separate – sexed, unsegmented round worms include many parasite species that infected human (Heyneman 2004).

Helminthes was defined by “Mayo clinie family book” (A medical encyclopedia text book) as large parasites and it is applied to a few phyla of animal all of which superficially resemble one another in being “worm like”. They are diverse in boddy structure, respiratory, physiology and behaviour. They are also diverse in life cycle, orgnisation etc. this diversity is as a result of the phylogenentic complexity of the group, while another is as a result their multiple specific adaptation of helminthes.

        In the theory concerning the origin of parasitism, it was assumed that at the beginning of the world, many different phylogenetic group of animal appeared and spread through the ecological and physiological environment  (Muonese 2004). The body of some of this group of animal formed a hoing place for a few others, which were capable of adapting themselves successfully. The, most successful group being protozoa, helminthes and some arthropods, these constitute the important group of parasite known today. The pathogenic helminthes are regards as permanent parasites; they tend to remain in the body until either ales of some immunizing process or treatment removed then. The pathogenic helminthes live at the expense of the tissue and fluid of the host.

Note: Helminthes is a disease condition due to “Helminthes infections”

 

1.2     STATEMENT OF PROBLEM

Heliminthiasis, has created enormous problems in tropical African countries, apart from economic important both in our domestic animal and control strategies, man suffers great threat resulting from helminthiasis. It causes problem in the country such as diarrhea, anaemia, and loss of weight, weakness and some pathological effects that could lead to death such as in filarial worms which are the complex disease caused by inphly pathogenic filarial nematodes of man. These worms are transmitted from infected host to a new host by insects. The filarial nematode of man such as; wucheria bancroff, onchocila voloulus, loa coa etc are similarly wide spread. Some helminthes such as schistomiasis caused by digenia of the genus schistosoma, which inhabit in the blood vessels. Other helminthes infection of worldwide occurrence and which occupy a prominent place in tropical parasitology include Ascariases (Giant round worm) caused by ascaris lumbrisoidie, hookworm disease which is due to infection with ancylostima duodenale and nilatol americanus, trichuriasis caused by trichu trichure. There are also taeruasis caused by taenia soyinata and taenia solium.

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