Preparation Of Soap Using Local Raw Materials

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PREPARATION OF SOAP USING LOCAL RAW MATERIALS

ABSTRACT

 

 

 

Preparation of Local Soap involves the se of wood ash from the flowering plant of Daniello, Oliveri (Agba) Isoberllima doka (Achi), Parkia Clappertonwna (Ugba) and Eleasis guineensis (Nkwu) as the source for the caustic alkali were compared for performance.  The woody tissue of the local trees were burnt at the temperature of 250 – 700oc for a period of 3½ - 4 hrs.  But the optimum temperature for maximum extraction of the alkali from the ash is 600oC for a period of 45 – 1hr 30 min.  Caustic alkali free from impurities was obtained by leaching the ash with water in a special fabricated filtrations apparatus.  And this by hot process by which the filtrate was decanted to another container and filtered through a filter paper placed inside the funnel for filtrations and the presence of Alkali was tasted by the action on litmus paper.  Change of damp red litmus paper to blue.

 

 

 

Recall that soap is manufactured by the alkaline hydrolysis reaction called saponification, which is the reaction of fats and oils with alkali.

 

          C3H5 (COOR)3 + 3kcoH           3kOOCR   +   C3H5(OH)

                   Fat              Alkali                     Soap                      Glycerine

 

 

So, according to the results, the filtrate obtained were found to be very daliguisenat.  And the result of the influence of the alogestion on the PH showed that the longer the ash remained in water, the lighter the pH.  So the result of soap produced was found to be free from impurities and has the ability to foam well and the soap produced was found to be market worthy and consumer oriented.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

 

 

Title page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of contents

 

CHAPTER   ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background

1.2     Definition

1.3     types of Soap

1.4     Aim and Objectives

1.5     Statements of Problems

1.6     Hypothesis

1.7     Significance

1.8     Limitation of this Study

 

 

CHAPTER   TWO

 

2.0     LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     Sources of Wood Ash for Local Manufactures

2.2     Synthetic Method for Caustic Soda

2.3     The Solvay Process

2.4     Liblance Process

2.5     Chemistry of alkali

2.6     Effect on Soap Manufacture

 

 

CHAPTER   THREE

3.0     METHODOLOGY

3.1     Sample Collection

3.2     Field Experimentation

3.3     Areas Expected to Cover in Lab

3.4     Fabrication of Equipment for Extraction

3.5     Ignition of “NGU”

3.6     Extraction Procedure

3.7     Crystallization and Re-crystallization Process, Using Distillation Apparatus

3.8     Determination of the PH Sample

3.9     Physical Examination and Tests

3.10   Determination of Caustic Strength of Solution

3.11   Extraction of Caustic Different Digestion Time

 

 

CHAPTER   FOUR

4.0     PRESENTATION OF RESULTS

4.1     Presentation of Results for Extraction Styles of Caustic From Ash and Preliminary Test on Sample

4.2     Titration Reading for the Determination of Caustic Strength of Sample

4.3     How to Prepare 0.2ml HCL

4.4     Result of Preliminary Test and Titration

4.5     Qualitative Analysis

 

 

CHAPTER   FIVE

5.0     DISCUSSION OF RESULTS AND CONCLUSION

5.1     Ashing of Wood

5.2     Extraction of Caustic from Ash

5.3     Determination of PH and Caustic Strength of the Caustic Solution

5.4     Qualitative Analysis

5.5     Conclusion

5.6     Recommendations

5.7     Summary

          REFERENCE

CHAPTER   ONE

 

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND

Soap is the earliest detergent know to man and apparently was first made by the Romans from animal fats and oil and wood ash which is an alkali that contains potassium carbonate, sodium, potassium hydroxide called potash leached from the wood ash (Robert, 1994).  It is also an unsaturated ester since an ester can be split into an alcohol and a carboxylic acid by hydrolysis.  Meaning that it does not contain all the solutes that can be dissolve at a particular temperature (Kirt Othmer, 1994).  Also soap is a metallic salt of a fatty acid because if a metallic base is used in the hydrolysis instead of water, the metallic salt of the carboxylic acid is obtained, not the acid because carboxylic acid are weak acid which dissociates only slightly in solution

(Hou, 1992).

 

 

1.2     Soap can be defined as the sodium or potassium salt of fatty acids, made by heating fats and oil with caustic soda or caustic potash respectively (Cook 1990).

Most soap was manufactured by an alkaline hydrolysis reaction called the Saponification, which is the reaction of fats and oil with alkali.

C3H5 (COOR)3   +   3KOH                3KOOCR   +   C3H5  (OH)

(where R – represent the hydrocarbon chain) also according to the equation above, soaps was made in huge keittes into which fat and oil and alkali were piped and heated until it boils vigorously.

Saponification is the process used in making soap since ancient times, soaps have been made from vegetable and animal oil and fats looked in alkali (Kott, NaoH) (Steiner, 1990).  Soap and detergent are both cleaning agents and both work in the same way, but soap cleanse with the natural occurring materials such as animal fat and wood ash.

 

1.3     TYPES OF SOAP

In the world of soap manufacturing, there are basically three types of soap, under them they are classified according to their categories:

(1)     Foreign Soap

          These are soap that is medically investigated to cure a skin diseases.  Examples:

 

(a)     Medicated soap

          i.        Antiseptic soap

          ii.       Germicidic soap

          iii.      Herbal soap

 

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Preparation Of Soap Using Local Raw Materials

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