PRODUCTION OF ALKYD RESIN FROM THE OIL OF MONODORA MYRISTICA (EHURU OIL)
Alkyd resin was prepared from crude Monodora myristica oil. The experiment started from the extraction of M. myristica oil by solvent extraction. Then the characteristics of the oil, Such as specific gravity, iodine value, acid value and peroxide value were determined. The proximate analysis of the seed oil was equally determined and the result were as follows: fat; (8.6%) Ash;(4.8%)and moisture (3.95%) and alkyd resin (acid value 5.0)was prepared from the crude M. myriscitca oil by alcoholysis method in excess of phthalic anhydride in the presence of PbO and NaOH as catalysts. A good quality alkyd resin was produced and the alkyd resin produced has good viscosity, flexibility, adhesion and drying properties. Good quality gloss paint comparable with Sharon paint was produced with the alkyd resin.
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.0 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Alkyd resins are low molecular weight esters formed when polyhydric alcohol react with polybasic and monobasic acids .The term alkyd was first used by Kience in 1927 to describe the reaction product of polyhydric alcohol(AL) with polybasic acid(KYD).The word Alkyd is coined from two words Alkanol (alcohol) and Acid anhydride (phthalic anhydride).
Alkyd resins have been introduced in the 1930s as binders for paints. Their compatibility with many polymers and the extremely wide formulating latitude made them suitable for the production of a very broad range of coating materials (Blegen, 1992).
These include vanishes for wood and metals, road marking paints, anticorrosive paints, nitrocellulose lacquers, two-component isocyanate curing coating and acid curing coating. Except for phthalic anhydride, being from petrochemical origin the other raw materials used in the synthesis of the alkyds are from biologically renewable source (Formo, 1996).
This combined with their biological degradability makes them very interesting binders from, an ecological point of view.
Alkyd resins are the reaction product of poly-basic acids, polyhydric alcohol and monobasic fatty acid or oils. It is a chemical combination between oil or oil-derived fatty acids and polyester polymers (Boxwall and Fraunhopper, 1994).
In spite of a large number of other synthetic resins being available for use in paint formulations, the alkyd resins surpassed all of them in versatility and low cost together with a broad spectrum of performance properties (Billmayer and Salza, 1996).
Polymerization is one of the most important industrial processes. Resins and emulsion are two main classes of polymer. Alkyds are far the most important class of coating resins. It is estimated that alkyd resins contributes about 70% to the conventional binder used is surface coating today. The popularity of alkyd Resin as a vehicle for coating is largely due to their unique properties such as film hardness, durability gloss and gloss retention, resistance to abrasion and wear impacted on them through modification with drying oil (Gordon, 2001).
Alkyd resins are used in both clear and pigmented, industrial and trade coatings to protect and decorate a wide variety of substances (Stanly, 2000).
The oils that are mostly employed in the production of alkyd resin are linseed oil, soybean oil, dehydrated castor seed oil, fish oil and M. myristica oil can equally be used in the production of alkyd resin because of its semi-drying properties (Mark, 1994).
Oil modified alkyd resins are made with drying, semi drying and non-drying oils. The type of oil selected depends on the condition under which the film will be dried and the colour retention properties required in the film (Sunday and Joseph, 2005).
Air drying alkyd are made with the good drying oils such as linseed oil and dehydrated castor seed oil, but semi-drying soya bean oil may also be used in medium and short-oil alkyds (Timothy and Mark, 2004).
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Alkyd resin has been reported to have various uses in coating and paint industries. This had necessitated the need for a project work to be carried out on the production of alkyd resin from locally available materials.
1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
- To extract oil from the seed of Monodora myristica.
- To evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics of the extracted oil of M.myristica.
- To use the oil to produce alkyd resin.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The result of this project work would be useful in the production of alkyd resins from locally available materials as well as create awareness in the economic potentials of the seeds of Monodora myristica which is currently used as a cooking spice in various Nigerian societies.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research work is limited to the production of alkyd resin using the oil of Monodora myristica (Ehuru) seed.